Introduction to the Social Concern
Substance maltreatment and mental wellness jobs are societal concerns that prove to be a go oning battle within the lives of 1000s of persons and their households. The chief aim of the article written by Herrenkohl, Lee, Kosterman, and Hawkins ( 2011 ) is to bring out household forecasters that can ensue in the substance maltreatment and mental wellness upsets so many people struggle with in maturity. To accomplish this aim, the writers examined the survey conducted by the Seattle Social Development Project. The information in this longitudinal survey was collected from 808 fifth-grade pupils throughout critical development phases ( Herrenkohl, et al. , 2011 ) . At each developmental phase, the survey participants were asked a series of inquiries that provided penetrations into household struggle, engagement, and direction in correlativity with substance maltreatment and mental wellness ( Herrenkohl, et al. ) . The article uses the informations gathered from these inquiries to pass on to the reader how household engagement and direction lessening the likeliness of substance maltreatment and mental wellness jobs in maturity and household struggle increases the odds ( Herrenkohl, et al. ) . A critical analysis utilizing the systems theory and ecological position will supply a better apprehension of the societal concern discussed in the article by Herrenkohl et Al.
Specifying the Systems Theory & A ; the Ecological Perspective
The systems theory and the ecological position are cardinal theoretical models in the field on societal work. With that said, it is of import to truly understand what precisely the systems theory and ecological position are in order to be effectual assistants. Within the systems theory, human existences are seen as members of systems that are orderly and interrelated that consequence in the devising of a functional whole ( Zastrow & A ; Kirst-Ashman, 2010 ) . The ecological position besides views persons as being a portion of different degrees of systems, but more significantly is concerned with the complexness of the minutess that occur between persons and their environment ( Greene, 2008 ) . Harmonizing to Greene ( 2008 ) , the chief difference between these two positions is that the systems theory focal points on how the system itself can alter, while the ecological position expressions at a individual ‘s capacity to impact alteration within their environments.
Several cardinal elements of the systems theory and ecological position can be used to critically analysis the societal concern of substance maltreatment and mental wellness jobs as displayed in the article authored by Herrenkohl, Lee, Kosterman, and Hawkins ( 2011 ) . These cardinal elements include systems, boundaries, interface, functions, relatedness, minutess, get bying, and tantrum.
Critical Analysis Using Systems Theory
In relation to the systems theory, the cardinal elements that can be straight applied to the article are systems, boundaries, interface, and functions. A system that is the chief focal point within the article is the household system. The household system is considered to be a mezzo degree system, intending little groups ( Zastrow & A ; Kirst-Ashman, 2010 ) . By analyzing the mezzo degree group dynamic that is happening with a household, Herrenkohl, Lee, Kosterman, and Hawkins ( 2011 ) are able to uncover the forecasters that relate to adulthood substance maltreatment and mental wellness jobs. The household system is seen as increasing or diminishing the likeliness of the societal concerns as a whole, alternatively of the person.
Another indispensable component to systems theory is boundaries. Boundaries are used to specify the restraints that differentiate systems and subsystems from one another ( Parrish, 2010 ) . In the article by Herrenkohl, Lee, Kosterman, and Hawkins ( 2011 ) , an of import boundary that must be defined is who is considered portion of the household system and who is non. Although the article does non outright specify what the boundary of household is, it appears that in footings of the survey a household consists of the immediate people who live in the same family as the participants, such as parents and siblings. In footings of the article, the household boundary is indispensable because it distinguishes it from other people and systems in the participants ‘ lives such as friends and wise mans. Without this boundary, the survey would non be able carry through its aims.
In add-on, an interface plays an intricate function in systems theory. An interface is points in which two systems come in contact ( Zastrow & A ; Kirst-Ashman, 2010 ) . An interface that occurs within the survey is when the person comes in contact with the household system. Specifically, the survey is concerned with certain consequences that occur when a developmental phase interfaces with the household system. For illustration, the participants were questioned annually from age eight to sixteen, so at 18 and twenty seven, all of which coincide with a developmental phase in life, approximately ways in which they were interfacing with the household system ( Herrenkohl, Lee, Kosterman, & A ; Hawkins, 2011 ) . By analyzing this interface, the research workers are able to correlate specific life events and occurrences with subsequent substance maltreatment and mental wellness jobs.
Last, functions are a portion of the systems theory. Functions are societal behaviours that are expected from an person within a system ( Zastrow & A ; Kirst-Ashman, 2010 ) . Within the Herrenkohl, Lee, Kosterman, and Hawkins ( 2011 ) article, the functions within the household system are being examined. The parental function is particularly being examined in footings of how much engagement and direction parents have in their kids ‘s lives. As a parent, it is culturally expected that you actively affect yourself in the lives of your kids. Herrenkohl, et Al. ( 2011 ) examines the extent of this engagement and direction and correlates it to how it predicts substance maltreatment and mental wellness concerns later in life. For illustration, those parents who did non supervise their kid ‘s behaviour or did non clear up regulations, had kids who displayed higher rates of substance maltreatment and mental wellness jobs. This shows that non carry throughing a function can adversely impact others within the system.
Critical Analysis Using Ecological Perspective
The cardinal elements that can be applied to the article from the ecological position are relatedness, minutess, get bying, and tantrum. Relatedness is the capableness of people to organize connexions and relationships with one another ( Greene, 2008 ) . This capableness is particularly necessary in the household scene, which is the chief focal point of the article. Herrenkohl, Lee, Kosterman, and Hawkins ( 2011 ) discuss relatedness in footings of household engagement, struggle, and direction. These three elements are ways in which the survey participants are linking to their household. For illustration, to detect the degree of household struggle that was happening, the research workers measured the extent in which household members talked things out, got along, criticized one other, argued, and yelled ( Herrenkohl, et al. , 2011 ) . These are all illustrations of how the household is associating to one another. By bring outing household relatedness, it can be understood what supportive relationships, or deficiency thereof, can be addressed in helping the single dealing with substance maltreatment and mental wellness symptoms.
Furthermore, get bying is another component of the ecological position. Coping is how an single employs adaptation and problem-solving accomplishments to cover with environmental stressors ( Kirst-Ashman, 2008 ) . Coping accomplishments can be seen in Herrenkohl, Lee, Kosterman, and Hawkins ( 2011 ) in the ways in which the participants trade with the stressors caused by household struggle. For a group of the participants, the manner they coped with high degrees of household struggle was to utilize drugs and intoxicant. This illustrates that the get bying accomplishments of these persons are non as strong in covering with emphasis.
Besides, the goodness of tantrum is a cardinal component of the ecological position. A goodness of fit refers to the compatibility between a individual and their environment ( Greene, 2008 ) . Herrenkohl, Lee, Kosterman, and Hawkins ( 2011 ) are able to expose what can happen to a individual when there is a good tantrum or a deficiency of tantrum. A goodness of tantrum is displayed through the group of participants whose households displayed less struggle and high histories of engagement and direction. This group of participants, due to the goodness of tantrum in their environment, had fewer symptoms of substance maltreatment and mental wellness jobs later in life. On the other manus, participants whose households had high histories of struggle and less involvement and direction did non suit in their environment every bit good as the other group.
Finally, the ecological position is concerned with minutess. Minutess are the exchanges, interactions, and communicating that occur between people and their environment ( Zastrow & A ; Kirst-Ashman, 2010 ) . The article discussed has illustrations of both positive and negative minutess. Positive minutess that are happening in the presented article are household engagement and direction. Family activities, positive feedback and wagess, and having aid on prep are all positive exchanges. Negative minutess include household struggle, such as shouting, reasoning, and the usage of penalty. All of these negative and positive minutess contribute to how the survey participants would subsequently act in maturity.
After reading and discoursing the article written by Herrenkohl, Lee, Kosterman, and Hawkins ( 2011 ) , there are still some inquiries that have been left unreciprocated and farther accounts that that could explicate the societal concern. Herrenkohl, et Al. ( 2011 ) specifically focuses on the household forecasters that influence subsequently substance maltreatment and mental wellness jobs. Although is it helpful to concentrate entirely on the household to turn to this societal concern, a more in-depth and all-around apprehension could be achieved through analyzing the other societal forces, influences, and systems that contribute to substance maltreatment and mental wellness. For illustration, the article states that 52 % of the take parting sample is from low-income families ( Herrenkohl, et al. ) . Due to that fact, the participants may be populating in vicinities that have high studies of drug activity, which could besides be forecasters of substance maltreatment issues later in life. Besides, the participants have varies racial backgrounds and cultural considerations that can function as forecasters.
Furthermore, a lingering inquiry that is non answered by the article is about the historical background of the households involved. The survey outlined by Herrenkohl, Lee, Kosterman, and Hawkins ( 2011 ) does non inquire the participants about household history of substance maltreatment or mental wellness jobs. Family struggle, engagement, direction are all forecasters that can be examined in relation to substance maltreatment and mental wellness, but a individual ‘s familial history is besides an of import facet to see.
All in all, cardinal elements from the systems theory and ecological position were able to supply a better apprehension of the article by Herrenkohl, Lee, Kosterman, and Hawkins ( 2011 ) . However, both the systems theory and ecological position could be farther employed to build a more holistic position of the societal concern and analyze other influences other than household.