SUSTAINED ANTI PIRACY OPERATIONS BY THESouth AFRICAN NAVY1.IntroductionThe South African Navy ( SAN ) has been tasked by the Minister of Defence ( via a cabernet determination ) to transport out anti buccaneering operation off the south east seashore of Africa. This tasking was a consequence of a buccaneering onslaught off the northern Mozambique coastline in mid December 2010.
The SAN has commenced with patrols off the northern Mozambique coastline and farther countries as defined by Naval Command. The vass that are being used to transport out this tasking are the Valour Class Frigates of the SAN. The ships have a crew of about 180 forces onboard including the air force forces ( required for the chopper operations ) and medical forces.The ships have an endurance of 28 yearss at sea ( supply of nutrient and fuels dictates the endurance ) asking resupply the vass while they are off transporting out these patrols. The Frigates carry oning the patrols are presently refuelling out of the northern Mozambique port of Pemba.
These vass ( the heroism category frigates ) are high engineering based ships and in kernel demand a high grade / degree of fiscal support to keep them at their optimum degree of capableness required for the anti buccaneering missions they are presently set abouting. It must be borne in head that these patrols are averaging five months off from their naval base in Simon’s Town.With respect to the SAN, there are merely four valour category frigates in the SAN’s stock list viz. , SAS AMATOLA, SAS ISANDLWANA, SAS SPIOENKOP and SAS MENDI.
The demand for one vas to be off the Mozambique coastline transporting out anti buccaneering operations is a authorities jussive mood. The vass besides go through an intensive care period, where defects are rectified, ascents are implemented and tests are conducted on ascents and bing equipment to graduate the assorted systems to see that they are working to the laid down specification. This care doctrine therefore requires that one vas cycles through this care modus operandi that takes the best portion of 10 months to finish.This leaves the SAN with merely two vass in assorted phases of their operations rhythm left for usage. It must be besides borne in head that the anti buccaneering operations are non the lone undertakings that the SAN receives to put to death in transporting out its mandated undertaking and aims to authorities.
It must be further noted that the Navy’s Strategic Business Plan emphasizes that resources must be utilised in an effectual, efficient and economic mode.2.BackgroundPiracy has taken clasp in the northern Waterss of Africa off the Somali coastline.
Essentially Somali is a “failed state” ( Nuurre: 2010 ) and till an effectual authorities is in topographic point buccaneering will go on off these Waterss. Piracy has migrated south and in December 2010 there was a buccaneering onslaught off the Mozambique seashore. This resulted in a joint determination by the South Africa and Mozambique authoritiess to fall in forces to contend buccaneering off Mozambique’s 2,470km-long ( about 1,530 stat mis ) coastline.
This was ratified when the two countries’ defense mechanism curates signed a trade in Pretoria to put up joint patrols along the Mozambique seashore. It must be noted that an estimated 30 % of the world’s oil trade passes through this part and 98 % of South Africa’s maritime trade base on ballss through these Waterss ( MaritimeSecurity.Asia via bbc.co.uk ) .The SAN is evidently committed to transport out the anti buccaneering patrols nevertheless ; the SAN is in a quandary with a figure of issues in this respect.
It has merely four valour category frigates at present, the warrior category vass ( originally nine in figure ) are been withdrawn from service due to their stretch and go throughing their utile lives and are been scrapped. The replacing vass ( off shore patrol vass ) to replace the warrior category will non be in service for some old ages to come. The SAN has been under funded for several old ages now, it must be noted that the acquisition cost for the new valour category frigates was non included in the navy’s running cost. The frigates as mentioned antecedently are expensive to run and keep and support has non kept up with the frigates now extended use.The writer is of the sentiment that the SAN has the will to transport out the mandated anti buccaneering patrols off the Mozambique seashore nevertheless ; the writer strongly feels that the SAN does non hold the capacity and support to “sustain” any long term anti buccaneering patrols off the Mozambique coastline. It should be farther noted that Piracy in the Indian Ocean has been on the addition as plagiarists seek to avoid naval patrols off Somalia and a recent survey by “Geopolicity” ( which specialises in economic intelligence ) estimates that buccaneering cost the international community between $ 4.9bn ( ?2.
9bn ) and $ 8.3bn last twelvemonth.3.Significance OF THE STUDYThe sustainability of the SAN to transport out drawn-out anti buccaneering operations off the Mozambique coastline will be investigated.
The current base line of deploying frigates from Simon’s Town will be used to find tendencies and feasibleness in the current rotational rhythm of the ships in order to find its present position. This will find whether the SAN is capable to prolong anti buccaneering operations off Mozambique. Any defects that might be will be identified and possible solutions will be provided, if applicable.4.PROBLEM STATEMENT4.1MAIN QUESTIONIs the SAN capable of prolonging anti buccaneering operations off the Mozambique coastline with its present support and resources?4.
2SUB-QUESTIONS4.2.1What are the defects in resorts that exist ( if any ) ?4.2.2How can these defects be addressed?4.
2.3What are the fiscal limitations / restrictions?4.2.4Are the current logistic support steps / constructions sufficient?4.2.
5What household support steps are being put in topographic point to prolong these envisaged operations?5.HypothesisThe hypothesis of this research is that the SAN can non prolong anti buccaneering operations off the Mozambique coastline at nowadays.6.Research AIMS AND OBJECTIVESGiven the fact that this research is aimed at finding whether the SAN is soon capable of prolonging anti buccaneering operations off the Mozambique coastline, the research aims are set out as follows:
- The first aim is to find the current SAN’s ends and aims ordered to transport out anti buccaneering operations off Mozambique.
- The 2nd aim is to look into the rotational use of the frigates in the anti buccaneering functions and drive a budgetary figure of what this costs the SAN.
- The 3rd aim is to compare the current support the SAN receives with the current outgo that anti buccaneering operations are bing the SAN in both fuel, nutrient and on board spares.
- The 4th aim is to place any defects that might be in resources the SAN has at its disposal.
- The 5th aim is to supply possible solutions in order to turn to these defects, if applicable.
7.RESEARCH METHODOLOGY7.1TYPE OF RESEARCHThe type of research that will be conducted will be both Qualitative and Quantitative Research.
Qualitative Research will be used to inquire inquiries with relevant capable affair experts with the intent of depicting and understanding anti buccaneering operations conducted by the SAN. Quantitative Research will be used to research statistics based on current disbursement by the SAN of current and past deployments in the anti buccaneering operations. It shall besides be used in sourcing available statistics on buccaneering incidents around Africa and any tendency of buccaneering traveling farther South.Qualitative Research will let the research worker to
- explore the nature of the topic ;
- derive new penetrations into the capable affair ;
- develop new constructs or theoretical positions about the topic ; and
- discover the jobs that exist within the topic.
Quantitative Research will let the research worker to
- beginning available statistics based on costings of current and past deployments ;
- extrapolate and comparison informations collected to bring forth feasible information to papers.
No studies will be conducted, but merely descriptive informations will be collected.
The information will be analysed utilizing inductive logical thinking, i.e. many specific observations will be made and tax write-offs drawn about the topic. ( Leedy & A ; Ormrod: 2005 )7.2DATA COLLECTIONIn order to carry on and reason the survey, informations shall be collected from both primary and secondary beginnings. Primary data refers to new informations that is collected by the research worker for the first clip specifically for the survey. This type of informations is non available from bing beginnings. Secondary information refers to informations that is already in being, and can be retrieved from beginnings like the universe broad web, databases and mention libraries.
7.2.1SOURCES OF PRIMARY DATAPrimary informations will be obtained via interviews with
- Commanding Military officers of Valour Class Frigates ;
- the budget directors of Director Fleet Force Preparation ;
- the Officer in Charge of Technical Upkeep Section ( TUS ) , who is the naval authorization on care and fix administration ;
- Director Fleet Logistics’ director for surface vass and,
- Director Fleet Human Rescores.
These interviews will be conducted utilizing self-administered questionnaires with open-ended inquiries. This will guarantee the research worker obtain as much information as possible.7.2.
2SOURCES OF SECONDARY DATAThese include
- Ship Reports ;
- Naval Orders ;
- Fleet Orders ;
- Admin Orders ; and
- the Internet.
8.Ethical CONSIDERATIONSTo prolong long deployments there must be a conjunct attempt to set up the ethical considerations around the sustainability of these naval operations. The chief focal point of the moralss around this survey must be to find the household support for the SAN members involved in these operations. Further to this, the moralss involved in runing out of another state must be established.9.LITERATURE REVIEWAs the research proposal focuses on a naval issue, extended usage shall be made on naval literature nevertheless ; this shall non be limited to merely SAN literature but besides other navy’s so as to obtain a balanced result and to see if there are countries for betterment should they be found. Therefore literature sing this topic shall non be limited to that of the SAN but besides unfastened sourced information that can be obtained.
In order to convey lucidity and focal point to the research job, every bit good as better methodological analysis the research worker will utilize the undermentioned literature to obtain secondary informations:
- Report of proceedings from SAN ships on anti buccaneering operations ;
- Naval Orders ( South African Navy: 2009 ) ;
- Fleet Orders ( South African Navy: 2007 ) ; and
In order to broaden the cognition base in the research country, the research worker will utilize primary informations obtained via interviews with
- Commanding Military officers of Valour Class Frigates ( Boucher: 2014 ) ;
- the budget directors of Director Fleet Force Preparation ( Wehmeyer: 2014 ) ;
- the Officer in Charge of Technical Upkeep Section ( Thiart: 2014 ) and
- Director Fleet Logistics’ director for surface vass ( Steenkamp: 2014 )
10.Terminology10.1AntiAntiis referred to as opposed to person or something. ( hypertext transfer protocol: //dictionary.reference.com )10.2PiracyPiracyis referred to as robbery on the high seas, particularly the larceny of a ship ‘s lading. ( hypertext transfer protocol: //dictionary.
reference.com )10.3NavyNavyrefers to the subdivision of a state ‘s military forces chiefly designated for naval warfare and amphibian warfare, viz. lake – or ocean -borne combat operations and related maps. It includes anything conducted by surface ships, amphibian ships, pigboats, and seaborne air power, every bit good as accessory support, communications, preparation, and other Fieldss. Recent developments have included infinite related operations.
( hypertext transfer protocol: //en.wikipedia.org ) .10.4OPERATIONALOperationalrefers to the ability to map or be used.
Operationalin the military refers to of, refering to, or involved in military operations. ( hypertext transfer protocol: //dictionary.reference.com )10.5CapabilityCapabilityrefers to the capacity of being used or improved ( hypertext transfer protocol: //dictionary.reference.
com ) .Capabilityin the armed forces is the step of the ability of an point to accomplish the mission aims, given the conditions during the mission ( SADF: 1986 ) .10.6SustainabilitySustainabilityis referred as capable of go oning at same degree. Capable of go oning for a long clip at the same degree.
( hypertext transfer protocol: //dictionary.reference.com )11.FRAMEWORK OF THE STUDY11.1Chapter ONE: General INTRODUCTIONThis chapter will supply the general debut to the survey.
It will concentrate on the background of anti buccaneering operations conducted by the SAN. It will include the job statement and cardinal inquiries, purposes and aims of the survey every bit good as the significance of the survey.11.
2Chapter TWO: Main Discussion
This subdivision will associate the General Introduction given in Chapter 1 with the Main Discussion in Chapter 2.
- SUSTAINED ANTI PIRACY OPERATIONS BY THE SOUTH AFRICAN NAVY
This subdivision will concentrate on the term ‘sustained anti buccaneering operations by the South African Navy’ . It will supply an account of the researcher’s perceptual experience of the construct.
- Support AND EXPENDITURE BY THE SOUTH AFRICAN NAVY
This subdivision will look into the current support given to the SAN for operational use versus the current outgo that the anti buccaneering operations are bing.
The research worker will besides analyze the cost in care in an attempt to deduce at full costing for the ships current tasking for this research paper.
- SHORTCOMINGS IN SUSTAINABILITY BY THE SOUTH AFRICAN NAVY
This subdivision will concentrate on the defects, if any, of the sustainability of the SAN to transport out anti buccaneering operations.
- POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS TO THE SHORTCOMINGS
In the event that defects have been identified, the research worker will supply possible solutions to the defects in this subdivision.11.3Chapter THREE: Decision, FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONSThis is the envisaged last chapter of the survey, which will show the decisions drawn from the analysis of the survey and appropriate recommendations by the research worker. These recommendations are envisaged to add to the organic structure of cognition that can be of usage in the survey.12.
List OF REFERENCESNuurre, H 2010. hypertext transfer protocol: // www.hiiraanonline.
com July 2010.geopolicity2011. hypertext transfer protocol: //www.geopolicity.
com August 2011.Leedy, P.D. & A ; Ormrod, J.E. 2005.
Practical Research: Planning and Design. 8Thursdayerectile dysfunction. Pearson Merrill Prentice Hall: New Jersey.hypertext transfer protocol: //dictionary.reference.com. Retrieved August 20, 2011 from the World Wide Web.
hypertext transfer protocol: //en.wikipedia.org. Retrieved July 14, 2009 from the World Wide Web.South African Defence Force.
1986.Military Dictionary of the South African Defence Force. SADF Language Services: Capital of south africa1