Terrorism: The simple meaning of terrorism is “The unlawful use ofviolence and intimidation, especially against civilians, in the pursuit ofpolitical aims” but there is no universally accepted definition of Terrorism. History of Terrorism: Themodern terrorism began with the French revolution which started on 5thSeptember 1793 and ended on 28th July 1794 in which the ruling Jacobins employedviolence, including mass executions by guillotine, in order tointimidate the regime’s enemies and compel obedience to the state. The Jacobins, mostfamously Robespierre, sometimes referred to themselves as “terrorists”.After that it started spreading around the world.
Cause of Terrorism: Themost popular theory is that poverty causes terrorism. When people are deprivedof certain resources and opportunities, poverty can create resentment and causesome to turn to terrorism in order to express their outrage. An alternativetheory says that political factors like government repression leads toterrorism. Examples of variables used to measure government repression arepolitical rights and civil liberties. Unstable and according to some,undemocratic societies form weak governments causing the people to suffer.Human rights abuses would also fall into this category since this is a directresult of government action, and would then be considered a form of repression.Human rights violations, including dispossession and humiliation, result inpeople having severe grievances against the government.
Certain studies showthat terrorism has a strong link with social injustice at the hands of thegovernment rather than poverty. Types and Characteristicsof Terrorism: Thefew types of terrorism,1. “State Sponsored Terrorism” this type ofterrorism is done by a state/Government in another state/Government. Thereare many types of state sponsored terrorism many states/governments havepolices to sponsor/support terrorist in different countries. For which they as a nation, or state, may determine that its interestsare served by the actions of terrorist groups or organizations and will providemeans for the terrorist organization to pursue its activities with the intentthat such activity will also facilitate the state’s objectives or goals.
Terrorists to continue their activities and perform their operations,terrorists require funding, sometimes small amounts, oftentimes moresubstantial amounts of money which are then sponsored by the enemy states.States also sponsor Training and training facilities which are required by terrorists,states can readily arrange the necessary facilities and those that will trainthe terrorists. The state can also provide offices and other facilitiesrequired by the terrorists in which they can plan, prepare, coordinate, andgenerally ensure the success of their operations. The sponsor can provide arefuge or safe haven to avoid rule of law before and after the attack, helpraise or provide the funds necessary for the terrorists in preparation for andin carrying out the terrorist operation, and provide access to other sponsorsand groups or individuals willing to endorse or assist the terrorists 2. “Dissident Terrorism” this type ofterrorism is done by a group which has rebelled against the State/Government. Muchof dissident terrorism is anti-state in nature, directed at existinggovernments and political institutions with the aim of destabilizing theexisting government in order to build a new government. These terrorists areoften associated with freedom fighters attempting to overthrow a perceivedunjust government or to establish a new separatist state within an existingcountry. Within many countries around the globeminority groups exist wishing to garner some form of independence, if not theirown state altogether.
Therefore Dissident groups will continue to be asignificant source of terrorism. It is important to recognize this and counterit with more politically inclusive processes that can mitigate the grievancesof minority groups, though some will inevitably continue to employ terrorismuntil they achieve their desired independent nation. Chechen terroristorganizations are also ethno-nationalists for their attacks against thegovernment and people of Russia in the attempt to form their own state. 3. “PoliticsSponsored Terrorism” this type of terrorism is done by a political party when thereare political elections are being held. A lack of political inclusiveness in states or grievancesagainst a certain political order may cause individuals to join or createterrorist groups. Political terrorism relies on violent acts toinfluence public opinion on political issues or to vie for political power.
Frustratedexpressions of political will can turn to violence as an alternative toexclusive political systems. While somewhat similar toethno-nationalist/separatist causes, these political grievances are not bornfrom the desire to create a new state but to change the order within thecurrent one. Political terrorists sometimes harbor nationalistic aims,but these motivations are more clearly considered as separatist terrorism.Political terrorism may be waged by extremist groups on either end of thepolitical spectrum, more often described as “left wing” or”right wing” terrorist groups.
Political terrorism differs from criminal terrorism in that politicalterrorism usually involves efforts to influence an audience. Generally speaking, the criminal terroristdoes not want a big audience. Political terrorism can involve activities toobtain money, but that money is used for political ends. Generally speaking, criminal terrorism has aneconomic basis. 4. “ReligiousTerrorism” is the type of terrorist group which are motivated to promote terrorthrough religion.Perhaps the most commonly held belief today is that terrorismis caused by religion.
Though it is not the main cause for terrorism, religiondoes play a significant role in driving some forms of it. Religiousterrorism has become the predominant model for political violence in the modernworld. Religious extremism has become a central issue in the global community. For centuries, religious beliefs have led to countlessmurders. Whole societies have fought each other because of different religiousbeliefs. Religious terrorism stated in 1995 with deadly Tokyo subway sarin attack.
As a driver of terrorism, the true danger thatreligious doctrine poses is its encouragement of attacks that are more violentin nature than other types of terrorism. By being promised rewards in theafterlife, terrorists are more likely to carry out suicide bombings and othersuch “all in” tactics that are harder to defend against. 5. “Criminal Terrorism” is the type ofterrorist act used to aid crime and criminal acts. Traditionalcriminal use to do crime to support or fund their personal needs but now criminalterrorists do crime in order to fund their party’s political movements. In anutshell, these groups use violence and crime to help provide funding for theirpolitical party and support them to win the election. Crime is merely a meansto an end for criminal terrorists.
These groups are the beginning of theformation of hybrid groups that combine characteristics of both traditionalterrorist groups and criminal organizations. The criminal terrorist tends to be more oriented to aspecific target. Blow up this bank,hijack this plane. the criminal terrorist does not want a big audience. Solution to Terrorism: There is no good solution to end theterrorism, everyone around the globe is trying to find out the exact solutionto end the terrorism.
The authorities aretrying to crush the terror menace through legal action; western powers aretrying to crush it through warfare; however, these methods are, apparently,proving ineffective. According to UNESCO, “Violence begins from the mind”. Itmust, therefore, be uprooted from the mind itself. This goes directly to theroot cause of terrorism. Therefore, in order to eliminate this root cause weneed to initiate our efforts by beginning from the right starting point. Andthis starting point is the re-engineering of minds of individuals by takingthem away from the culture of violence and bringing them closer to the cultureof peace.