Tetanus the nervous system and causes muscles to

Tetanus is a dangerous bacterial infection that attacks
the nervous system and causes muscles to tighten up. The infection usually
causes muscle contractions in the jaw and neck region but can eventually spread
throughout the body. If not promptly treated, the infection can be
life-threatening. Ten to twenty percent of patients infected with tetanus will
die. Tetanus can be prevented through immunization, and in the U.S., it is
given to children through the DTap shot. The DTap shot is a three-in-one shot
that vaccinates children from diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus. Sometime
around a child’s eleventh birthday, they are supposed to get a booster shot, another
dose of the vaccine, and adults should have a booster every ten years. There
are only around thirty U.S. cases a year. To help parents easily have
their children vaccinated, shots are often given free in public schools.

       Clostridium
tetani is the bacteria that causes Tetanus. The bacteria can be found in dust,
dirt, and animal feces. Spores are small reproductive bodies produced by
certain organisms. Open wounds allow these spores to enter the bloodstream and
cause infection. The bacteria then spreads to the CNS and makes a toxin called
tetanospasmin. This toxin blocks the nerve signals from your spinal cord to
your muscles, and can lead to severe muscle spasms. The Tetanus bacteria is linked
to and often caused by crush injuries, burns, puncture wounds, animal bites,
and dental infections, situations that allow bacteria to enter the skin.

       Tetanus
affects the nerves that control muscles, which can lead to difficulty
swallowing. Patients can also experience spasms and stiffness in muscles, most
likely those in the jaw, abdomen, chest, back, and neck. According to the
Center for Disease Control, other common Tetanus symptoms include seizures, headache,
fever and sweating, changes in blood pressure, and increased heart rate.
The
time between exposure to the bacteria, and the illness actually taking effect,
is between three and twenty one days. Symptoms usually appear within fourteen
days when the infection sets in. Infections that develop more quickly following
exposure are typically more severe and need more extreme treatment.

       Your
heath-care professional will most likely perform a physical exam to check for
symptoms of tetanus, such as muscle stiffness and painful spasms. Lab tests are
not required to determine if a person has tetanus. However, your doctor may
still perform lab tests to help make sure you have no other diseases with
similar symptoms, such as meningitis, a bacterial infection that damages the
brain and spinal cord, or rabies, a viral infection that causes the brain to
swell up. Your doctor will also check your immunization history and base his
diagnosis from that. You’re at a much higher risk of tetanus if you haven’t
been immunized or if it’s time for you to get your booster shot. The earlier
the disease is diagnosed and treatment begins, the better the chances of
recovery. If a person has an injury and suspects the possibility of tetanus,
a doctor should be seen immediately.

       Treatment is
dependent upon the extent of the patient’s symptoms. Tetanus is treated with
multiple types of therapies and medications. Healthcare professionals will
clean the wound to eradicate the bacteria in the body. Physicians may
prescribe penicillin or metronidazole for treatment. These antibiotics prevent
the bacteria from spreading and producing the neurotoxin that causes muscles to
spasm and stiffen. If a
patient has difficulty swallowing and breathing, he/she may need a breathing
tube, or ventilator, to assist with breathing. A tetanus vaccine is also given
along with the treatment to reduce the chance of recurrence. If the doctor
thinks the infected wound is unusually large, he/she may surgically remove as
much of the damaged and infected muscle as safely possible.
            Tetanus is a disease that
people should not risk. If an injured person suspects the possibility of
infection and his/her booster shot is overdue, a doctor should be consulted
immediately. Prevention is key. Children should be protected if they received
their required shots on schedule, and adults should receive a booster every ten
years.