The – 2017), Mercedes-Benz B250e (2014 – 2017),

The State of California

Through a
project called Clean Vehicle Rebate Project (CVRP), California offers up to $7,000 in electric vehicle rebates for
the purchase or lease of eligible zero-emissions and plug-in hybrid
vehicles. The Center for Sustainable Energy (CSE) administers CVRP for
the California Air
Resources Board (CARB) 69. 

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!


order now

A rebate
of 5000 USD is available for the following models of FCVs 69: Honda
Clarity Fuel Cell                   
(2017), Hyundai Tucson Fuel Cell (2015 – 2017), Toyota Mirai Fuel Cell
Vehicle (2016 – 2017).

A rebate of 2500 USD is available for the following models of BEVs 69: BLUECAR Bluecar
(2016, Fleets only), BMW i3 (2014 – 2017), BYD e6 (2012 – 2017, Fleets only),
Chevrolet Bolt EV (2017), Chevrolet Spark EV (2014 – 2016), Fiat 500e (2013 –
2017), Ford Focus Electric (2012 – 2018), Honda Clarity Electric (2017),
Hyundai Ioniq Electric (2017), Kia Soul EV (2015 – 2017), Mercedes-Benz B250e
(2014 – 2017), Mitsubishi i-MiEV (2012, 2014, 2016, 2017), Nissan LEAF (2011 –
2017), smart (2011, 2013 – 2017), Tesla Model 3 (2017), Tesla Model S (2012 –
2017), Tesla Model X (2016 – 2017), Volkswagen e-Golf (2015 – 2017)

A rebate of 1500 USD is available for the following models of PHEVs 69: Audi A3 e-tron
(2016 – 2017), BMW 530e (2018), Cadillac ELR (2014, 2016), Chevrolet Volt (2012
– 2018, ONLY Low Emissions Package), Chrysler Pacifica (2017 – 2018), Ford
C-MAX Energi (2013 – 2017), Ford Fusion Energi (2013 – 2018), Hyundai Sonata
Plug-in Hybrid (2016 – 2017), Kia Optima Plug-in Hybrid (2017), Mitsubishi
Outlander PHEV (2018), Toyota Prius Prime (2017), Volvo S90 T8 (2018), Volvo
XC60 T8 (2018), Volvo XC90 T8 (2018)

The State of California supports the development of hydrogen refueling
stations. Through a program called AB 8, California has co-funded 62 hydrogen fueling station projects as of October 2017 54.  Through the AB 8 program, $20 million is
allocated annually until there are at
least 100 publicly available hydrogen-fueling stations in California 70.

EV charging stations are funded
by California through the California
Energy Commission’s Alternative and Renewable Fuel and Vehicle Technology
Program (ARFVTP). 38.8 percent of statewide total public charging sites
and 37.9 percent of charging outlets have been funded by ARFVTP  72.

As of April 2017, California has 29 Open-Retail HRSs and is
expected to have 37 HRSs be open by the end of 2017 71.
 Table
25
shows the number of HRSs in California through from 2013 to 2016.

Table 25. Number of HRSs in California from 2013 to
2016 71

Year

Number of HRSs

2013

9

2014

10

2015

12

2016

29

2017 (expected by
the end of the year)

37

As of June 2017, there are about 12,000 publicly
accessible charging ports at more than 3,600 charging stations in California 73.
As of April 2017, more than 1,600 FCVs had active registrations in California 71.
Table
26
shows the number of FCVS on-the-road in California through 2013-2016 71.

Table 26. Number of FCVs in California (2013-2017)

Year

Number of FCVs

2013

125

2014

152

2015

179

2016

925

2017 (as of
April)

1600

 

As of May
2017, about 300,000 Zero-Emission Vehicles (ZEV) and PHEVs have been sold in
California 72.
Assuming the sales of BEVs and PHEVs have been zero before 2009, Table
27
shows the number of electric vehicles based on the number of new registrations
each year. The data used was from California Auto Outlooks covering the fourth quarter of 2013 74
and the first quarter of 2017 75.

Table 27. Cumulative number of BEVs and PHEVs in California
(2009-2017) 74, 75

Year

Cumulative number of BEVs and PHEVs
 

2009

772      (100% BEV, 0% PHEV)

2010

1169    (92% BEV, 8% PHEV)

2011

8153    (78%
BEV, 22% PHEV)

2012

29051  (43% BEV, 57% PHEV)

2013

71596   (48% BEV, 52% PHEV)

2014

131081 (49%
BEV, 51% PHEV)

2015

193298 (51%
BEV, 49% PHEV)

2016

268463 (52%
BEV, 48% PHEV)

2017
(first quarter)

292733 (52%
BEV, 48% PHEV)

 

Based on the projections, California expects to
have 13,400 and 37,400 FCVs on-the-road
in 2020 and 2023, respectively 71. Statewide Station Projections show 62
HRSs in California in 2020 71.
California targets a long-term goal of reaching 1.5 million ZEVs on roadways by
2025 72.

Analysis and discussion

Introduction to type of incentives

Reviewing the
incentives allocated for the deployment of EVs and development of
charging/refueling infrastructure, it can be seen that the structure of the
support for vehicle purchase and infrastructure development is different. While
in the case of purchase subsidy, the consumer stakeholder owns the vehicle and
the government just pays the subsidy, in case of charging infrastructure and
refueling stations, a model of public-private partnership is followed in many countries although some countries
tend so support the development of charging/refueling infrastructure with
direct subsidies to the investor. Incentives for EVs purchase are then direct economic incentives and
incentives for charging infrastructure are of direct collaborative and direct
economic incentives. Direct incentive means that the subsidy is transferred to
the consumer in monetary value 12 and
collaborative incentive means the government plays a collaborative and
managerial role in developing infrastructure 13.

Although the purchase subsidy for vehicles is usually
the most noticeable form of subsidizing EVs in each country or jurisdiction (a
research in Norway showed that for more than 80% of responders to a survey
purchase tax and Value-Added Tax (VAT) are of high importance 9), it should also be noted that incentivizing charging infrastructure has
a significant effect on the large-scale deployment of electric vehicles.
For instance, Zubaryeva et al. 14
stated that availability of a proper number
of charging infrastructure has a significant effect on widespread deployment of
electric vehicles in Europe. Sierzchula et al. 15 also stated that
adding a charging structure per 100,000 residents has twice the impact on the
EV market share in a country than $ 1,000 financial incentives for consumers.

Chicken and egg for FCV and HRS

x

Hi!
I'm Mack!

Would you like to get a custom essay? How about receiving a customized one?

Check it out