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The overall idea of this text is to help readers understand who Confucius was and his contributions to Chinese literature. The main section of this reading focusses on Confucius’s work, The Analects. Confucius was a teacher as well as the philosopher who taught in the ancient Chinese state known as Lu. After Confucius died in 479 BC, people who’d  follow Confucius wrote about his life and teachings. This collection of quotes from himself and his followers, experiences that he went through and what kind of person he was is known today as The Analects. An example of Confucius’s experiences is shown through book l (The Analects is a series of books) where Confucius talks about different stages in his life. He says, “at 15, I set my mind upon learning. At 30, I took my stand. At 40, I had no doubts…etc”(Confucius 2012: 1334).     A second example is what he taught through teaching and it can be seen from book lV where he says, ” in the morning here the Way; in the evening die content”(Confucius 2012: 1336). The lesson that Confucius was teaching  was that if you can find what you’re looking for during your early stages of life then you will live a happy life and die without having any regrets.This last example truly shows Confucius’s love of ritual and traditional culture. It is from book Xl and Confucius is grieving for his favourite student and he tells the students that loving genuinely and expressing your emotions is more important than being well mannered or friendly.The overall idea is significant to our course because it philosophically explains ones ideas of life, culture and teachings. It is important to understand Confucius’s Analects because it can create morals and values within ones own life. The Dao De Jing p.1344-1373The Dao De Jing, which means “The classic of the Way and It’s Virtue” is associated with Laozi, the Chinese philosopher. It is a book that has a collection of 81 classical texts and it contains answers to the meaning of life, values and supernatural beings. The Dao De Jing can be translated: Dao meaning the way, De meaning virtue and Jing meaning power. An example of Laozi describing a part of the meaning of life is in the first chapter. He says ” The way that can be spoken of Is not the constant way;..”(Laozi 2012: 1346). This means that the way that can be  understood or explained into words isn’t  the constant eternally, consistent way. This is important because people often confuse certain things with descriptions which are restricted and subjected to adapt. A second example is values within human life. Though the Dao is described as an objective reality, it should be perceived subjectively by humans. In chapter 7, someone who identifies with the Dao, one puts itself last as if itself is foreign. He says, “… therefore the sage puts his person last and it comes first, Treats it as extraneous to himself and it is preserved…”(Laozi 2012: 1348). This last example explains the way of nature. It can be seen in chapter 5 where he says, ” heaven and earth are ruthless, and treat the myriad creatures as straw dogs…”(Laozi 2012: 1347). In other words the forces of the universe has given us our lives and giving us ways to live but it any moment we can be oppressed by the bad in life such as disease and even death. The overall idea is significant to the course because it can change how people interact with the rest of the world. Literature is the most important theme for this course and this written text gives us a deep history of the universe. It helps us young people to be come prepared with our futures as it gives a meaningful adventure of world literature.  The Bhagavad-Gita p.1282-1300The Bhagavad-Gita is a poem which entails the battle between the Kauravas (the Kings sons) and the Pandavas (their cousins) for the rule of territory. The overall idea of this text is to help understand it’s philosophical message as a meditation on universal issues (Krsna Dvaipayana 2012:1282). It is a story of dilemmas, action and knowledge.And example of dilemma within the story is Arjuna who is distressed by losing friends and relatives because of the war and this makes him feel doubtful and makes him wonder  if he should fight in this battle. He says in chapter 1, ‘Felt for them a great compassion, as well as great despair, and said, ‘O Krishna, now that I have seen my relatives so keen for war'(Krsna Dvaipayana 2012: 1286).A second example can help explain the action that the story entails. Krishna who is the Lord explains that the appropriate actions for Arjuna is to do what he needs to do but to not attach himself to it. This is called karma yoga. This example can be seen in chapter 3 where the Lord says, ‘ but he whose mind controls his senses, who undertakes the discipline of action by the action – organs, without attachment, is renowned.'(Krsna Dvaipayana 2012: 1292)A third example which will show the knowledge can be seen one Krishna says that he’s lived through many births, always teaching yoga for the protection of the pious (religion). He also talks about how he excepted a guru ( a spiritual teacher). In chapter 6 the Lord says, ‘ with his mind sharp into one point, we thought and since it’s both subdued, there he should sit, doing yoga so I asked to purify the self,'( Krsna Dvaipayana 2012: 1296).This piece of work is very significant to the course because it is a crucial piece of ancient Indian text that is apart of tradition. It gives a philosophical view of spirit and reality that I’m sure is very important to Indian culture and way of life.The Jataka p.1301-1310The Jataka is a bunch of stories surrounded by  the embodiment of the Buddha. In each of the stories the Buddha talks about a specific life to emphasize Buddhist teachings or ethics. Some of these teachings include having value of life, love, selflessness etc.For example the story of the hare (Bodhisatta; Buddha-to-be) and it’s sacrifice teaches the value of being selfless. The example can be seen when Bodhissata says… ” therefore feed any beggars that come to you by giving them food from your own table.”( The Hare’s Self-Sacrifice, The Jataka 2012: 1304) A second example of love and selfless living can be seen through the story of The Golden Goose. Bodhisatta died and returned to the world as a golden goose (The Golden Goose, The Jataka 2012: 1304). When he saw that his wife and kids that he left when he died was living in poverty he would give them one of his feathers so that they would live free from pain. He says ” you shall have my feather,”( The Golden Goose, The Jataka 2012: 1304).The third example shows how the selflessness of Bodhisatta was used in the end of the story. His wife in the end plucked all of his golden feathers which made him unable to fly and when his feathers grew again they were all white. ” as time went on his feathers grew again ( though they were plain white ones now), and she flew away to his own abode and never came back again.”( The Golden Goose, The Jataka 2012: 1304)All the stories are very significant to the course. They each teach a different lesson. The story of the hare teaches us to be humble and selfless at times when others need more. The story of the golden goose teaches us that when we love someone or something we do whatever we need to do in order to help them. It also teaches us that people will use you for their self gain and sometimes there’s no coming back from it.    The Epic of Gilgamesh p.95-121The Epic of Gilgamesh is a piece of literature from ancient Mesopotamia. The story of Gilgamesh who was thought to be the King of Uruk, is about what it truly means to be human this includes death and friendship, nature in civilization, power and violence, love and sexuality etc.(The Epic of Gilgamesh 2012:95)And example of the violence that King Gilgamesh can be shown in tablet 1 where it says, ” he was harrying The young men of Urik beyond reason. Gilgamesh would leave no son to his father, Day and night he would rampage fiercely.”(The Epic of Gilgamesh 2012:101)An example of friendship can be seen before the battle with Humbaba (demon). Gilgamesh says, ” When to go together each will protect himself and shield his companion, and if they fall they leave and enduring name” (The Epic of Gilgamesh 2012:109)A last example to show King Gilgamesh’s selfishness is when he tries to create a name for himself. He says that he will go to a place and put his name with all these other famous men’s names so that people know that he was a ‘hero’.This story is very significant to a course because it helps people understand how people can progress and do good even if they’ve done evil. It’s a different perspective than a lot of the other stories because it demonstrates so many different kinds of emotions and attributes of the characters. It is also very important because it is one of the earliest pieces of literature in the world.               


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