The a precise control mechanism. A large number

The advent of revolutionary tools for RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) has
disclosed the complexity of the human transcriptome(1). A large part of human transcripts has been made up of non-coding
RNAs (ncRNAs). ncRNAs more than 200 nucleotides long, with low or no coding
potential, are called lncRNAs. So far, more than 15,000 lncRNAs have been
identified based on Genecode, which function of many of them has not been
investigated. In recent years, much more attention has been paid to the
function of these genes, and so far, only a few number of them have been
characterized in detail. Expanding evidence demonstrate that some lncRNAs
regulate basic cellular processes which include regulation of epigenetics state
and gene expression, proliferation, differentiation and development and genomic

Experience and react to the condition that stresses a living cell
homeostasis is a common process in all organisms. Several response pathways
have advanced to guarantee cell survival under harsh conditions and regulate
cell metabolism and maintain homeostasis. Cell stress response is the extensive
range of molecular adjustments that cells undergo in reaction to environmental
stressors, including heat shock, nutrient deprivation, DNA damage and exposure
to toxins. The different procedures engaged with cellular stress responses fill
the versatile need of protecting a cell towards destructive environmental
conditions. The ribosome is an important part of the cellular stress response.
According to the stress, ribosome shows different responses which could be the
translation of cell survival proteins and repression of translation of
unnecessary proteins.

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Translation is the most energy consuming procedure of the cell. Therefore, the
translation of most proteins is suppressed, given the need for energy to
survive in hard conditions and to cope with stress. This suppression also has exceptions, translation of the proteins
involved in cellular stress response and enduring severe conditions is not
suppressed and regard to the type of cellular stress the translation of some of
proteins increases.

Regulating cellular responses to stress and preventing energy waste
requires a precise control mechanism. A large number of cell growth and
proliferation signaling pathways directly affect the rRNA regulation in the
nucleolus and ultimately impact on ribosome biogenesis. Ribosomes biogenesis
debilitation is one of the key survival strategies of the cell in severe
environmental conditions. rRNA synthesis for ribosome biogenesis requires high
energy consumption, so suppression of the translation in the ribosome and rRNA
synthesis in the nucleolus (in a reversible manner, so the homeostasis of the
cell returns to the normal state in the case of 
the cellular stress is resolved) is an applied method to cope with
cellular stress conditions.

Nucleolus as the largest structure inside the nucleus of eukaryotic
cells is the location of ribosome biogenesis. Studies have shown the nucleolus
is a vital center for facilitating stress response, regulating cell survival
and recuperation from stress.

Also, the recent advancement of ribosomal profiling has attracted
the studies interest within the translation subject, the regulatory mechanism
under stress is still significantly less recognized.













1.         Wang Z, Gerstein M, Snyder M. RNA-Seq:
a revolutionary tool for transcriptomics. Nat Rev Genet. 2009;10(1):57-63.



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