In general footings, market cleavage is the procedure of spliting the entire market into big homogenous groups of clients who portion similar demands and features. # Marketing cleavage is the act of placing and profiling distinguishable groups of purchaser whoA might prefer or necessitate varying merchandises and selling mixes.# Market cleavage is the procedure of spliting the entire market for a goods or services into several smaller groups, such that the members of each group are similar with regard to the factors that influence demand.
# Market cleavage is calling wide merchandise markets and sectioning these wide merchandise markets in order to choose mark markets and develop suited selling mixes.SEGMENTATION IMPLIES:# Division of entire market into groups.# Group should be big plenty for marketing intent.# Group should be homogenous with same penchants.
# Customer in a group should hold similar demands and features.Segmentation finds client groups for make up one’s minding mark markets.Market cleavage should non be based on conjectures and intuitions. It should be a systematic procedure dwelling of:# MARKET SURVEY# SEGMENT IDENTIFICATION# SEGMENT Profiling# SEGMENT SELECTION# MARKET SURVEY: Cleavage requires a thorough probe of the entire market features. Marketing study is conducted for this intent and Information is collected on following facets:*customer demands and features*Desirable merchandise properties*Brand consciousness and evaluations*Product use forms and uses rate*Customer attitudes towards the merchandise*Preference forms, etc.# SEGMENT IDENTIFICATION: Detailed analysis is done of the information collected from the market study. Appropriate statistical tools are used to do the analysis.# SEGMENT Profiling: The variables for cleavage are identified.
They can be geographic, demographic, psychographic and behavioral. They vary harmonizing to the market.# SEGMENT SELECTION: 0rganizations select one or more sections after careful rating.*segment attraction, in footings of size, net income, competition, hazards*Organizational aims and resources*Market coverage desired*Ethical consideration in footings of environment and societal well being.*Government policies and Torahs.Cleavage requires the usage of both dependent forms every bit good as independent forms. The former derives from the administrations need to section the market and is referred to as the footing for cleavage. The overall aim of cleavage is flexible to selling inputs, it is known why the dependant variable would change harmonizing to direction s demands.
Therefore, for e.g. new merchandise determinations are typically concerned with benefits sought, innovativeness, and purchase sensitivities, while publicizing determination involve the usage of such variables as media use, psychographics, and benefits sought. The independent variables seek to explicate the flexibleness in the base or dependant variable and are called forms.TYPES OF SEGMENTATION:1.
Target Selling. 2. Niche Selling.3. Local MARKETIING. 4. CUSTOMIZED Selling.
1. Target Selling: The entire market is viewed as consisting of heterogenous client groups. They have assorted features. The market is divided into major market sections. One or more of those sections are selected as mark. Marketing mix is tailored to each section. This is based on new selling construct.2.
NICHE Selling: A Niche is a more narrowly defined group of clients. It is identified by spliting a section into sub sections. Marketing mix is tailored to the niche. Niches are reasonably little groups whose demands have non been good served. They are willing to pay higher monetary values.3.
Local Selling: The selling mix is tailored to the demands and wants of local client groups. They can be vicinities or shops in local area.A This type of market is fundamentally segmented by sing local consumers.4. CUSTOMIZED Selling: The market is viewed as consisting of persons with distinguishable demands and features.
Marketing mix is tailoredto each person. Tailor made fabrics and separately designed houses are illustrations. Business-to-business selling is mostly customized.# Requirements: For an effectual cleavage the size, demands, buying power, and features of the clients in the section should be mensurable.
The sections should be differentiable. There must be distinct footing for spliting clients into meaningful homogenous groups. They should react otherwise to different selling mixes. There should be differences in purchaser ‘s demands, features and behavior for spliting in groups. The section should be reached and served.
It should be accessible through bing selling establishments, such as distribution channels, publicizing media and gross revenues force. There should be jobbers to administer the merchandises. The section should be significant. It should be big plenty in footings of clients and net income potency.
It should warrant the costs of developing a separate sellingmix. Organization should be able to plan and implement the selling mix to function the chosen section. It should be actionable for marketing intent.A market consists of clients with demands to fulfill, money to pass and willingness to purchase merchandises. No merchandise can fulfill the demands of all the clients in the market. Customers vary in footings of demands, features, purchasing behavior, buying power, and penchants.
Markets can be divided as follows:1: consumer markets. 2: Industrial markets.3: Institutional markets. 4: Global markets.Today concern became more diversified consists mass selling which required mass production, mass distribution and mass publicity. One individual selling mix is non plenty to fulfill the demands of all the clients.
Organization pattern micro selling. Modern selling positions the entire one or more sections are selected as mark market. Separate selling mix is designed for each selected section.
SEGMENTATION VARIABLE OF CONSUMER MARKETS:
Consumer market consists of persons and families. Cleavage is done harmonizing to the, client demands, merchandise use, trade name trueness, purchase influence, innovativeness, geographical location, account n clients type and size etc.
CUSTOMER NEEDS: Consumers vary on what benefits they want every bit good as on the importance of each. Consumers develop a set of pick standards to as the ideal trade name. e.g. the dentifrice market can be divided into 4 benefit segments-decay, bar, breath, freshness and potassium bitartrate remotion. Firm have a pick about which benefits they will construct into the merchandise and to what extent. Such as trade name toothpaste Colgate, Close-up and Pepsodent.
*PRODUCT Use: In most markets a little proportion of clients histories for a significant portion of entire purchases, e.g. about half of all us beer drinkers account for 90 % of all beer consumed.
*BRAND LOYALTY: Users of a merchandise vary as to their trueness to a particulartrade name. The undertaking of direction is to increase the trueness of present clients and add new 1s.*PURCHASE INFLUENCE: Often several persons influence the purchase of a merchandise. Lots of consumer influences from purchasing behavior of others e.
g. gifts, kids merchandises and prescription drugs, several purchasing influentials are involved.*INNOVATIVENESS: Potential clients can be divided into 5 groups associating to the velocity with which they adopt new products-innovators, early adoptive parents, early bulk, late bulk and dawdlers.
*GEOGRAPHICAL Location: IT is frequently utile to section markets based on different geographic parts such as mountain, hill and field, metropolitan, small town development commission, winter country, summer country etc.*ACCOUNT/CLIENTS TYPE AND SIZE: Cleavage by channel type is another of import possibility. Consumer goods markets can be segmented into different channels by jobber n retail merchants. e.g. departmental shops, supermarkets etc.
In some instances an history may be so big as to represent a section in its ain rights. E.g. , general motors and its purchase of steel.Page6 SEGMENTATION VARIABLES FOR INDUSTRIAL MARKETS: Industrial market includes industrial, institutional and resell markets.
This market is really big in size and the purchasers in this market are good informed and they are largely guided by logical logical thinking. The variables used for sectioning the industrial markets are:*GEOGRAPHIC VARIABLES*DEMOGRAPHIC VARIABLE*PURCHASE RELATED VARIABLE*GEOGRAPHIC VARIABLES: The geographic variables are location of market, topography, clime etc. While sectioning the market, the market can be segmented at local, national, regional, international market under location. They can be segmented into mountains, hills, field under topography etc.*DEMOGRAPHIC Variable: Under the demographic variable cleavage can be done harmonizing to types of concern.
It includes agribusiness, forestry, fishing, excavation, conveyance n communicating etc. Cleavage is besides doneA harmonizing to the size of clients. Under this variable the bases for market cleavage are bungalow and little units, medium size units, little clients medium big clients, really big clients etc..Demographic variable besides related with operating variables. It includes engineering, usages rate and service demand of the client. Under engineering, it can be segmented into labor oriented, capital oriented, progress engineering etc.*PURCHASE RELATED VARIABLE: It includes purchase construction, certification and clip.
Purchase construction means the type of purchase administration adopted by the clients. They can be single, purchase commission, section etc.
THE RESEARCH PROCESS FOR SEGMENTATION:
Cleavage surveies are among the most hard 1s to set about regardless of which cleavage theoretical account is used. There are troubles in footings of the sample design, the dependability of the informations aggregation, dada analysis every bit good as in the reading of consequence.
# Finally, cleavage surveies involve complex techniques where many intercrossed cleavage is applied. One can non cognize in progress which footing for cleavage will take to designation of meaningful sections, cleavage surveies should be flexible, leting diverse analyses aimed at the designation of relevant sections. This demand creates particular demands for research workers with cognition of big figure of analytical processs, good conceptual apprehension of options and a high degree of research.# Mention for the notes.
Definitions are taken from:Philip kotler*Stanton, Etzel and Walker. *Jerome McCarthy.See Philip kotler selling direction ( 2003 ) Govind R.Agrawal ( 1999 new add-on 2008 ) T.
U professor direction in NEPAL.Concept and schemes, Wiliam M.Pride and O.C Ferrel, BOSTON ( 1989 )Weiers, Ronald M. ( 1988 ) selling research. International editions.TARGETINGPage 8Targeting is the bone of marketing cleavage. When the market is segmented into assorted groups, market aiming starts.
Targeting the market to provide rite merchandise to rite consumer is the chief end for this procedure. So Organisation should carefully choose the sections n starts aiming schemes. It involves 2 schemes.1. Evaluation OF THEA TARGET MARKET2. Choice OF Target Market# EVALUATION OF THE TARGET MARKET: Ones the market is segmented it is necessary to measure aiming schemes into different coverage forms.*Single coverage aiming. : A little company want to concentrate one little section Ns make a mark for its coverage.
Some administrations besides pattern Niche selling. e.g Rolls Royce has targeted really high income market for autos. Targeting is done harmonizing to the section size and the growing of the market.
Large administration demands big aiming and planning, and little demands little mark planning for the market coverage. Targeting must be evaluated from the profitableness point of position. In it purchasers, providers, possible competition allshould be considered. Targeting aims should be fulfilled utilizing different resources in footings of engineering, production capacity, manpower etc.*SELECTION OF TARGET MARKET: Second portion of aiming is choosing mark market for the full coverage. This scheme needs multi section market coverage n full market coverage.
This scheme allows an administration to specialise in one market. The administration can understand the demands and features of different clients. Multi aiming scheme is that under which administration selects two or more sections into the market. It involves higher cost of planing separate merchandises, different promotional tools and distribution system to cover with different market section. Product specialisation aiming physiques merchandise repute and diversifies hazard.
Marketing specialisation aiming scheme is a scheme of individual merchandise and selling scheme is a individual market scheme. So this scheme administration concentrates on one individual market and by being specialized in individual market it can understand the demands of marketPaper8 2nd-understand the demands and features of that market. Full market aiming coverage scheme is really wide base aiming scheme. Under it, the administration tries to run into the demands overall markets under one class. It will diversify its selling attempts in all sections.
An administration serves all market section n make marks to cover full market by the merchandises they need. Assorted merchandise points in one merchandise line are offered. Coca Cola is utilizing this scheme by offering a assortment of soft drinks to all mark market.ANotes for the mention: Foxall, Gordon R. ( 1992 ) strategic selling direction, LONDON.
Croom Helen and John wiley.Beginning: Philip kotler ( 2003 ) , Govind R. Agrawal. ( 1999 ) .
marketing direction and selling research.Marketing starts with the merchandise since it is what an organisation has to offer its mark market. After market cleavage and aiming placement has emerged as a powerful selling scheme. It is a new thought in selling. Positioning trades with the heads of the clients. It is making a merchandise image which purchasers will see in a certain mode comparative to viing trade names.
It is distinguishable perceptual experience of merchandise distinction by clients, it is done after choosing the mark market. The chief aim behind positioning a merchandise is to hold the trade name favorably perceived by the people in the mark. In market, we find that different places are available such as low monetary value place, high monetary value place and advanced engineering place etc.
In the words of Philip kotler: “ Placement is the act of planing the company s offering and image so that they occupy a meaningful and distinguishable competitory place in the mark client, s heads ” . ( marketing direction by Philip kotler, 11th edition )William Stantondefines: “ Positioning means developing the image that a merchandise undertakings in relation to competitory merchandises and to the firmsA other merchandises. “ ( Fundamentalss of marketing,7th Edition )# Organizations by and large selects one variable for positioning.
e.g best quality, services, best value, inexpensive rate, progress engineering, safest, fastest etc. They indicate number1 placement. E.g Rolex ticker, RADO ticker, BMW auto, Toyota etc has been positioned as high quality high monetary value merchandise.By and large nature of concern, state of affairs and aim of the company determines the positioning scheme of the merchandises. To implement merchandise placement, different stairss should be followed.
At first house should place distinction factors of the merchandise. Those are merchandise distinction, manner distinction, design distinction, public presentation distinction, service distinction, personal distinction and image distinction. At 2nd measure, foremost has to choose some differentiating factors that are relevant to merchandise, mark market and administration itself.Page10 While choosing the place, house has to see about consistence with the house organisations image, rivals places and their strengths and the cost of making and supporting places. At last measure, house has to pass on the placement factors to the mark market and selling mix for a merchandise, including 4ps schemes, which support the place scheme.There are different types of placement.
# ATTRIBUTE POSITIONING.# Placement BY PRICE AND QUALITY.# Placement BY USAGE OCCASION.
# Placement FOR USER CATEGORY.# COMPETITIVE POSITIONING.# Placement RELATING TO TARGET MARKET.# ATTRIBUTE Placement: When merchandises are positioning on the footing of the of import features of the merchandise such as property placement, quality gustatory sensation, lastingness etc. These are footing of the placement. Some houses promote their qualities as being in a desirable category such as made in London or holding an attractive property, such as low energy consumption.A# Placement BY PRICE AND QUALITY: Certain merchandises and retail merchants are known for their high quality merchandises and high monetary values.
By and large, in the automotive field, positioning by monetary value and quality is common.# Placement BY USAGE OCCASION: When merchandise is necessary on a peculiar juncture or for a specific intent, that placement is usage juncture placement. e.
g in instance of medical specialty information such as usage 2 or 3 times day-to-day is occasion placement.Page 10nd *POSITIONING FOR USER CATEGORY: When merchandises are utile for certain market section, merely so that is user positioning. In this instance, merchandises may be targeted at high, in-between or low income groups or kids, immature, middle-aged or old consumers.
*COMPETITIVE Placement: It presents the organisation s merchandise as better or superior to the rival s merchandise. This scheme is particularly suited for a house that has already a solid differential advantage. e.g, Coke ever presents its merchandises as better from each other.
*POSITIONING RELATING TO TARGET MARKET: In this scheme, mark market is the focal point in positioning the merchandise. This scheme does non propose that the other 1s ignore mark markets.# Inoder to keep good place of the merchandise in the market administration should avoidA the following placement mistakes.*UNDERPOSITIONING: Customers lack a clear thought of the trade name and its benefits. The trade name is seen as one more merchandise.
*OVERPOSITIONING: Customers get a narrow image of the trade name. Too many positive claims may take to client incredulity.*CONFUSED Placement: Customers get a baffled image of the trade name. The placement is changed excessively often.*DOUBTFUL Placement: Customers do non believe the trade name claim.Administrations should avoid positioning mistakes.Page11 Positioning involves assorted schemes in order to fulfill and win non merely the custodies and oral cavities of the clients but their eyes and head every bit good.
In order to do stableness in the concern and to accomplish its mark ends, organisation should follow different schemes. Such as*BRANDING Scheme*STANDARDIZATION AND ADAPTATION OF PRODUCTS*PACKAGING Scheme*LABELLING Scheme*WARRANTY AND SERVICE POLICE*PRODUCT Planning AND DEVELOPMENT.*INTERNATION Selling STRATEGIES.*BRANDING Scheme: Simply a trade name is a name, term, symbol or particular design of a merchandise. ACCORDING TO THE AMERICAN ASSOCIATION, “ Brand name is a name, term, symbol, grade or design or a combination of them which is intended to place goods or services of one marketer or a group of Sellerss and to distinguish them from those of rivals. “ ( ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www.
marketingpower.com/mg-dictionary-view329.php )Branding plays critical function to placing the place of a merchandises. It is use to place the marketer or shaper of the merchandise. Trade names suggest merchandise differences to the clients. They convey properties, image, values and benefits. e.
g branded toothpaste: Pepsodent, Colgate etc, branded tickers: RADO, TITAN etc they are in the no1 place in market.Brand lawfully protects the involvement of the company due to the enrollment of name under the concerned Act. It helps to place the market sections due to assist in alteration, enlargement and execution of marketing plan. It build corporative image and assist mass production and low cost of production. Brand helps to advance gross revenues through advertisement, personal merchandising, gross revenues publicity etc. through trade name names. It help in positioning merchandise because sellers use trade name value, trade name image and trade name personality.
Brand makes trade name trueness among the purchasers and spread out the merchandise line. It provides freedom pick in the market.Branding is al about constructing relationships. Stigmatization STRATEGIES ARE:# LINE EXTENSION STRATEGY: Under this scheme bing trade name name is extended to new points in the same merchandise line. This scheme is adopted when new characteristics such as new spirits.
..colors, ingredients, bundle size, and labels are introduced.
*The huge bulk of merchandise alterations consist of line extensions. Line extensions have higher opportunity of endurance. But the hazard is that the trade name name may lose specific significance.
# BRAND EXTENSION STRATEGY: Under this scheme, trade name names are extended to new merchandise lines. Honda uses the company name for different merchandise lines. *This scheme gives instant acknowledgment to the new merchandise. Customers respond favorably. Ad costs can be saved. However, if the clients feel defeated, other merchandises can acquire damaged.
# MULTI BRANDS STRATEGY: Under this scheme, new trade name names are given to points in the same merchandise line. Procter and Gamble has nine different trade names of detergents.*This scheme apples to different purchasing motivations. But each trade name may acquire a little market portion. Promotion costs are high.# NEW BRANDS STRATEGY: Under this scheme, new trade name name is given to a new merchandise line. *Customers perceive the new trade name as a new merchandise.
But the cost of advancing new trade name is high.# CO-BRANDS Scheme: Under this scheme, a trade name bears two or more good known trade name names. e.g Marut, Suziki autos.*This scheme strengths trade name penchant. New audience can be reached. But clients may non experience positive to take a firm stand on such trade names.# IMAGE Building STRATEGY: Under this scheme organisations build corporate image.
This in bend helps construct trade names. Customer credibleness additions for the merchandises of high image administrations. e.g SONY, BAJAJ, HULAS.12, , , , ,*STANDARDIZATION AND ADAPTATION: For the good placement of an administration the administration should follow the scheme of standardisation and version. Standardization is an act of maintaining or doing goods of unvarying form, size, coloring material, quality etc. While version, besides known as localisation, is an act of doing merchandises fit or suit to the market status. Some sellers adopt standardisation scheme while others follow localisation scheme for keeping their place.
When the merchandises are standardize, the house may derive the large-scale production in the long tally. which minimize per unit cost of production. Most of the consumers in the universe perceive standardized or unvarying merchandises as a symbol of quality, and therefore, builds up the company and merchandise image in the mark market. Merchandises in which proficient specifications are critical tend to be unvarying internationally. This helps keeping uniformity internationally. A good placement is that which can follow tothe altering market state of affairss.
Due to the cultural differences, it becomes hard for the merchandises to accommodate to the divergent markets. However, in long tally, the international seller has to do the merchandises best tantrum or most suited to the market conditions. Placement is done after market cleavage n taking market into the mark and keeping organisations stableness.
Adaptation is done harmonizing to the different demands and conditions of client and market. e.g clients in hot clime may demand fan and air status in the auto, while clients in cold topographic point may demand warmer in the auto. Consumer gustatory sensations are non indistinguishable around the universe. Peoples in different civilization may hold different perceptual experiences. e.g the Gallic, Nipponese, British and U.S clients may hold differed picks even in the choice of fabrics, auto, places, books etc.
Therefore high grade of localisation helps to keep good place of administration in the concern universe.13Packaging Scheme: Packaging may be defined as the general group of activities in the planning of a merchandise placement and concentration on explicating a design of the bundle and bring forthing an appropriate and attractive container or negligee for a merchandise. In another words, it can be defined as the procedure of planing the container for a merchandise. Package is an priceless assistance to determination devising by the clients andA a good bundle endures ultimate success of the merchandise as a commercial venture.“ Philip Kotler says Packaging includes the activities of planing and bring forthing the container or negligee for a merchandiseHarmonizing to the W.
J.Stanton “ Packaging may be difined as all the activities involved in planing and bring forthing the containers or negligees for a containers or negligees for a merchandiseBoxing protects trade good from losingss, amendss and impairment in quality due to exposure. It keeps the contents pure and clean. It reduces opportunities of breakage, shrinking and pilferage in theodolite.
Packaging helps on communicating of the merchandise and adds strengthness on publicity due to effectual size, colour etc.Good packaging besides plays critical function for keeping good place of a merchandise andA addition good will of administration. Package should be designed in such a mode that it will be most convenient in managing from one topographic point to another. The design and label on the bundle, printed affair, image, layout etc. should be attractive in packaging, which will hold positive consequence on the head of consumers.For keeping good place in the market packaging schemes can be adopted.*PACKAGE MODIFICATION STRATEGY: Under this scheme, the bundle is modified by altering its size, coloring material, label etc.
The clients perceive the new bundle as a new merchandise. This scheme is followed in the short tally to support market portion. The adulthood phase of the merchandise life rhythm is ideal for the usage of this scheme.*PRODUCT LINE Packaging Scheme: Under this scheme=Identical bundles are used for all points in the merchandise line.13a=Identical bundles are used for all merchandise lines.
=Diverse bundles are used for each point in the merchandise line.*REUSABLE Package Scheme: Under this scheme, bundles used can be reused or can hold multiple utilizations. They increase consumer value. This scheme is acquiring popular in consumer bundle goods.*UNIT PACKAGE STRATEGY: Under this scheme, separate bundle is used for each merchandise unit. ThisA helps for addition in gross revenues.*ENVIRONMENT-FRIENDLY PACKAGE STRATEGY: Under this scheme, biodegradable stuffs are used for packaging.
This scheme builds image of the organisation as friendly to environment.Therefore packaging schemes are made for keeping good and strong place in the market.Labeling schemes are madeA for carving the produts n for constructing communicating with the clients by turn outing information through labeling. *PRODUCT Planning AND DEVELOPMENT: Successful selling presupposes the proper combination of assorted marketing factors.Product is the most critical and refers non to any merchandise but one designed throughA merchandise planningA .Product planning is critical to marketing success.AMERICAN MARKETING ASSOCIATION has defined merchandise planning as the planning activity of selling carried out for the intent of choosing the right merchandises or services and administering them.For the sucessful execution of merchandises in international markets, theA international marketersA need to prove, clip to clip, the merchandise suitableness and merchandise version in the international markets.In decision placement is the concluding measure in market targeting.As the cleavage identifies the client to be targeted, positioning scheme is concerned withchoosing a selling mix appropriate to eachA mark marketA segment.Thus, placement of house s trade name is finally determind by the purchaser relation to the trade name s of the house s cardinal competitors.It refers to certain mentalA perceptual experience of the offering.e.g one trade name of toothpaste may be cosidered better for its tests.Generally speech production, it is the manner consumers perceive assorted trade names that determine their positions.By physical fundamental law, two trade names of a merchandise may be indistinguishable, yet they could be perceived differently.Conversely, two trade names may be dissimilar in footings of their physical features yet they could be perceived as similar if their differentiating features are considered unimportant.LABELLING STATEGIES: In order to keep the high positiong of a merchandise in the market labeling dramas an of import role.Label is a portion of a merchandise which gives verbal information about the merchandise and the seller.Label may be a simple ticket attached to the merchandise or an intricately designed in writing or pictural presentation that is the portion of the package.A Label may be a agency of acknowledgment or index of the product.Label identifies the merchandise so it is called as a BRAND LABEL.Label may rate the merchandise so it is called as a GRADE LABEL.Label may depict several things abou the merchandise sing the maker, topographic point of industry, usage technique, etc.soA it is called as DESCRIPTIVE or PROMOTIONAL LABEL.=BRAND LABELS: The label which describes the trade name name of the merchandise and to popularise stigmatization is called trade name label.e.g trade name label of vesture such as suiting, saris etc.=GRADE LABELS: The label which provides information about the quality or classof the merchandises with trade name name is grade labels.e.g.this type of labeling is the categorization of merchandise into perishable and non-perishable, etc=DESCRIPTIVE Label: The label which describes about the merchandise features every bit good as the utilizations of the merchandise is known as descriptive label.When a merchandise is hard to rate and sell this type of labelling is more parctiable.=INFORMATIVE Label: This type of label is used to supply equal information giving counsel and instructions on the usage and attention of the product.Generally consumers prefer enlightening labels.This label provides information about trade name name, name and reference of manufacturer, weigh, step and count, day of the month of packaging, monetary value, etc.See Philip Kotler ( 2003 ) and Govind R.Agrawal ( 1999 ) Selling IN NEPAL.AL Ries and Jack Trout ( 1982 ) : Placement: The conflict for your head, NewYork: Warner Book.PRESCRIBED TEXT BOOK: Philip kotler, Marketing ManagementW.J.Stanton, Fundamentals of marketing.REFERENCE READINGS: McCarthy, Jerome, Essentails of selling, direction N segmentation.Ramaswami and Namakumari for marketing direction, JAN CHASTON for marketing strategies.Marketing direction, Niraj Mishra and Dr.Govind Ram Agrawal.