The and cities. The city grew into a

The
cicerone of human societies has always been mobility and transportation. Since
the earliest Homo sapiens migrated from their cave dwellings over 100,000 years
ago from their peripatetic life. And throughout history, societal well-being
has been dependent on our ability to transport ourselves and the goods that we
produce. (Raymond W. Novaco, 2007).

 

Genesis
of medieval cities of Europe was on a roman base, with a pre-urban nuclei
housing bishop, other priests or a prince. The demand market created by these
wealthy consumers attracted a long-distance trade in luxury goods. The capital
base was thus created by a long-distance trade of luxury goods. And the
population base by contrast was created by local trade and artisanry, providing
utilitarian goods to the residents of the court. (Nicholas,
1997)

 

Capitalism has
existed on a small scale for centuries, (Warburton, 2003) in the form of merchant, renting and
lending activities, and occasionally as small-scale industry with some wage
labour. Simple commodity exchange, and consequently simple commodity production,
which are the initial basis for the growth of capital from trade, have a very
long history. The “capitalistic era” according to Karl Marx dates
from 16th century merchants and small urban workshops. (Mandel, 1
January 2002) During the Industrial Revolution, industrialists replaced merchants as a dominant factor
in the capitalist system.

With its advent, Industrial Revolution consequentially
changed the organization and character of cities. Thousands of factories were
built in the midst of towns and cities. The city grew into a crazy quilt of
packed humanity. The industrial slum became the new pattern of the city. (Victor Gruen, 1967).

 

So, structurally city had nuclei set by a housing bishop, other priests or a
prince, the city area and suburbs which existed usually outside city walls. In
contrary to people like Professor Christopher Tunnard treated who treated
suburbia to be a very modern phenomenon, its typo genesis can be traced back to
cities of all ages. These sub urban areas explain the ability of ancient towns
like greater “Ur”, Florence, to survive the insanitary conditions existed
within its city walls. (Mumford, 1989).

Consequentially,
Suburbs begun as a rural isolation ward, as from 13th century onward
the dread of plague prompted a periodic exodus from the city. Even today, in a
survey of the suburbanite’s reasons for moving from Cleveland to the outskirts,
the largest percentage of reasons 61%, in favour of the move, was “to live
cleaner, healthier neighbourhood”. “Only 48% favoured better school
opportunities and only 28% wished to have a yard or a garden. (Mumford,
1989).

Hence,
those who possessed land outside city’s walls valued having a place in the
country built for temporary retreat, if not permanent occupancy. And early city
dwellers did not wait for rapid transportation to take advantage of rural
surcease, as supposedly the balance of jobs between urban and rural areas
existed. (Mumford, 1989).

Retrospection
shows, country life or suburbia appeared best to the citizens. It has been city
dwellers earnest desire for suburb which had a placid, playful, hygienic,
aesthetic, appeal over gradually over crowding towns and cities. And further
one got away from the city, the more one gained health, freedom, Independence.  (Mumford,
1989).

 

However, Life in the city soon became intolerable due to malady
of industrial revolution, which resulted factories in the midst of cities, and
those and as a cognisable act, who could afford it led the march to the
suburbs. The exodus increased its tempo with the advent of the interurban,
elevated and subway trains and became a rout with the emergence of the
automobile. (Victor Gruen, 1967)

Industrial
revolution also, had brought mercurial change to urban and rural job balance.
Cities, which were well connected and had access to cheap labour, hence it
developed high density job centres, (though, presently new economic centres are
being developed in the city periphery) and people, whoever had the opportunity travelled
from their lucrative suburban homes to the job locations.

At first, urban
dwellers, in highly congested, highly polluted and highly unhygienic town travelled
in vehicles that ran on tracks, new communities had a central point the railway
stop to build around. As the cities stretched out along the tentacles of
railroad lines, shops, churches, and community buildings sprang up around the
railroad station; the size of residential areas was automatically controlled by
the walking distance from the station. Such sub enters are still clearly
recognizable in the Greater London Area. (Victor Gruen, 1967)

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