The and cities. The city grew into a

Thecicerone of human societies has always been mobility and transportation.

Sincethe earliest Homo sapiens migrated from their cave dwellings over 100,000 yearsago from their peripatetic life. And throughout history, societal well-beinghas been dependent on our ability to transport ourselves and the goods that weproduce. (Raymond W. Novaco, 2007).  Genesisof medieval cities of Europe was on a roman base, with a pre-urban nucleihousing bishop, other priests or a prince. The demand market created by thesewealthy consumers attracted a long-distance trade in luxury goods. The capitalbase was thus created by a long-distance trade of luxury goods. And thepopulation base by contrast was created by local trade and artisanry, providingutilitarian goods to the residents of the court.

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 (Nicholas, 1997) Capitalism hasexisted on a small scale for centuries, (Warburton, 2003) in the form of merchant, renting andlending activities, and occasionally as small-scale industry with some wagelabour. Simple commodity exchange, and consequently simple commodity production,which are the initial basis for the growth of capital from trade, have a verylong history. The “capitalistic era” according to Karl Marx datesfrom 16th century merchants and small urban workshops. (Mandel, 1 January 2002) During the Industrial Revolution, industrialists replaced merchants as a dominant factorin the capitalist system.With its advent, Industrial Revolution consequentiallychanged the organization and character of cities. Thousands of factories werebuilt in the midst of towns and cities. The city grew into a crazy quilt ofpacked humanity.

The industrial slum became the new pattern of the city. (Victor Gruen, 1967). So, structurally city had nuclei set by a housing bishop, other priests or aprince, the city area and suburbs which existed usually outside city walls. Incontrary to people like Professor Christopher Tunnard treated who treatedsuburbia to be a very modern phenomenon, its typo genesis can be traced back tocities of all ages. These sub urban areas explain the ability of ancient townslike greater “Ur”, Florence, to survive the insanitary conditions existedwithin its city walls. (Mumford, 1989).Consequentially,Suburbs begun as a rural isolation ward, as from 13th century onwardthe dread of plague prompted a periodic exodus from the city.

Even today, in asurvey of the suburbanite’s reasons for moving from Cleveland to the outskirts,the largest percentage of reasons 61%, in favour of the move, was “to livecleaner, healthier neighbourhood”. “Only 48% favoured better schoolopportunities and only 28% wished to have a yard or a garden. (Mumford, 1989).Hence,those who possessed land outside city’s walls valued having a place in thecountry built for temporary retreat, if not permanent occupancy.

And early citydwellers did not wait for rapid transportation to take advantage of ruralsurcease, as supposedly the balance of jobs between urban and rural areasexisted. (Mumford, 1989).Retrospectionshows, country life or suburbia appeared best to the citizens. It has been citydwellers earnest desire for suburb which had a placid, playful, hygienic,aesthetic, appeal over gradually over crowding towns and cities. And furtherone got away from the city, the more one gained health, freedom, Independence.  (Mumford, 1989). However, Life in the city soon became intolerable due to maladyof industrial revolution, which resulted factories in the midst of cities, andthose and as a cognisable act, who could afford it led the march to thesuburbs.

The exodus increased its tempo with the advent of the interurban,elevated and subway trains and became a rout with the emergence of theautomobile. (Victor Gruen, 1967)Industrialrevolution also, had brought mercurial change to urban and rural job balance.Cities, which were well connected and had access to cheap labour, hence itdeveloped high density job centres, (though, presently new economic centres arebeing developed in the city periphery) and people, whoever had the opportunity travelledfrom their lucrative suburban homes to the job locations.At first, urbandwellers, in highly congested, highly polluted and highly unhygienic town travelledin vehicles that ran on tracks, new communities had a central point the railwaystop to build around. As the cities stretched out along the tentacles ofrailroad lines, shops, churches, and community buildings sprang up around therailroad station; the size of residential areas was automatically controlled bythe walking distance from the station.

Such sub enters are still clearlyrecognizable in the Greater London Area. (Victor Gruen, 1967)