The term wildlife has not been defined in most statutes and acts.
According to the Cambridge dictionary since wildlife encompasses both animals and plants which is referred to as flora and fauna. Human- Wildlife Conflict is defined as any interaction between humans and wildlife that results in negative impacts social, economic or cultural life, on the conservation of wildlife populations, or on the environment (WWF (2005). Wildlife in Kenya is one of the greatest natural resources. It’s the backbone of our tourism industry which is the second- largest source of foreign exchange revenue.
According to the World Travel & Tourism Council (WTTC) “Economic Impact 2017 Kenya” report, the sector contributes $7.6 trillion or 10.2 percent of global GDP, once all direct, indirect and induced impacts are taken into account.Since long ago human beings and wildlife have been sharing resources such as water and other natural resources.The traditional set up was exposed to traditional activities such as hunting. One identifiable community is the maasai, who have been at the foremost of preserving their culture which has resulted in human wildlife conflict (HWC) in their community. In the 1940s to 1990s the maasai community and other pastoral communities have changed their land use from pastoralism to agropastoralism. Meaning that they have incorporated a combination of cultivation of crops together with livestock farming.
As cultivation has expanded the need for land has also escalated as a result. Hence this has led to encroachment into wildlife habitat increasing human wildlife conflict as a result. Conflicts between people and wildlife are encountered by a diverse group of communities, particularly those residing close to protected areas containing large herbivores and large carnivores (Newmark et al. 1994, Hemson et al.
2009). Human-wildlife conflicts are contentious because the resources concerned have a considerable economic value for local residents, while wildlife species have both national and international value, and are legally protected (Mayaka 2002). Human-wildlife conflicts can take various forms, including carnivores attacking and killing livestock or humans, species raiding crops, competition for game and/or resources, disease exchange between livestock and wildlife, carcass poisoning, and retaliation killing (Thirgood et al. 2005, Madden 2008).
Human-wildlife conflicts have escalated because of changes in land use, arable farming, and the sedentary lifestyle of pastoralists; inadequate wildlife control; and bans on hunting of some wild animals (Prins and Grootenhuis 2000). For instance,t he extremely high rate of human population growth in Africa leads to ever-increasing encroachment on wildlife habitats and an increase in human–wildlife conflicts. Species that are unable to adapt to altered habitats are being forced into small, marginal habitat patches.
Those species that, because of their behavioural flexibility, are able to adapt to a changing ecology and survive in agricultural systems often come into direct competition with humans and are persecuted as pests. The adaptability, intelligence and opportunistic nature of some primate species has led to them being considered a serious menace to agriculture in many tropical countries (Strum 1986; Mittermeier & Cheney 1987; Else 1991). Crop raiding by nuisance animals leads to the development of negative attitudes among locals towards the conservation particularly that of endangered animals like leopard, fox/jackal, monkeys and wild boar (Miah, D, Rahman, L and Ahsan, F , 2001).