The art of Biblical narrative with mention to the Story of Abraham, Book of Genesis Chapters 12 to 25 ; Chapter 22, v.1 -19
The art of narrative is one of the most marked and effectual literary techniques employed in the Bible. This art signifier finds a clear and dynamic look in the transitions that comprise the Book of Genesis in the relation of the life and the relationship with God that was enjoyed by Abraham.
The undermentioned analysis of the Abraham narrative shall be developed in three distinguishable facets.
The first is an overview of the techniques employed in Genesis chapters 12 to 25, with a peculiar focal point directed to the constructs of narrative technique and the position of the text writers as evidenced from the transitions. With these general observations in topographic point, the reappraisal will continue to specifically see illustrations selected from the narrative, taking to the climaxing events of Abraham’s forfeit that established the foundation for the subsequent histories that featured Isaac and Rebecca.
The narrative of the narrative of Abraham has a figure of characteristics that contribute to its flow and its ability to supply the reader with both a narrative and a series of sometimes contradictory messages. The storyteller speaks both as an perceiver in full ownership of all of the facts available, every bit good as person assured that their audience is a knowing 1. There is small biographical stuff of all time provided refering the major characters except by manner of family tree. The metropoliss and topographic points are described by their name merely, as if the characteristics and location of each is known to all.
The general tone of the narrative is one that suggests that these events are all embracing – all that is needed to spot God’s message is contained in the narrative itself, with no demand to fall back to external beginnings of information for counsel or inspiration. Robert Alter described the over all attack to the Genesis narrative as:
‘…We are ne’er in serious uncertainty that the scriptural storyteller knows all there is to cognize about the motivations and feelings, the moral nature and religious status of his characters, but, as we have seen on perennial occasions, he is extremely selective about sharing this omniscience with his readers….His typically monotheistic determination is to take us to cognize as flesh-and-blood knows: character is revealed chiefly through address, action, gesture, with all the ambiguities that entails ; motivation is often, though non constantly, left in a penumbra of uncertainty ; frequently we are able to pull plausible illations about the personages and their fates, but much remains a affair of speculation or even of badgering multiple possibilities.’ [ 1 ]
Dialogue is besides cardinal to the overall impact of the Genesis narrative sing Abraham. Dialogue is used in three ways that each advances the narrative line in a distinguishable manner. The most powerful and impactful duologue occurs between Abraham and God. God diversely speaks to Abraham to supply him express way [ 2 ] for the hereafter of his people ; he appears to Abraham in a vision where Abraham is permitted to oppugn God as to the hereafter [ 3 ] , without evident fright ; Abraham replies God with laughter at the suggestion that he at his great age would beget a kid [ 4 ] . In Chapter 18, God speaks to Abraham refering Sarah’s laughter at the chance of her elderly maternity, a repeat of the duologue described in the old chapter [ 5 ] . Abraham engages in a drawn-out series of inquiries that he puts to God refering the extent of the righteousness that must be in Sodom to save its pending devastation. [ 6 ] This insistent discourse achieves two intents within the narrative, as it reinforces the pending birth of Isaac, and it foreshadows the day of reckoning of Sodom and Gomorrah. [ 7 ]
The 2nd signifier of duologue that gives a particular way to the narrative arises with the intercessions of the angels at assorted occasions of the narrative. In contrast to the disdainful tone to the linguistic communication employed by God in His traffics with Abraham, the angels as God’s emissaries strike a gentler tone. The exchange between the angel and Hagar at a fountain in the wilderness is one illustration, [ 8 ] as the angel foretells to Hagar the birth of Ishmael. This angel is non cast as a moral agent whose intent is to knock Hagar for her dealingss with Abraham ; the duologue is enlightening and supportive, non judgemental.
In their function as mediators between worlds and God, the angels have a greater comprehensiveness of interaction with the people than does God, who speaks chiefly to Abraham throughout this narrative [ 9 ] . In many cases, the precise sense of precisely who is manifested as an angel courier is ill-defined. When the work forces who are seemingly angels came to Lot at the Gatess of Sodom, Lot is non their equal, but he does non fear their presence. In a similar manner, it is the voice of an angel that is heard by Hagar after she had been banished by Abraham [ 10 ] that provides her with comfort and way in the wilderness.
The 3rd signifier of duologue occurs between the assorted human characters of the Abraham narrative. These exchanges are about constantly trim and direct in their tone. There are few colorful phrases exchanged, as if to underscore the message and non any literary ornamentation that through ambiguity might take away from its power and kernel.
A careful reading of any Biblical narrative will uncover the usage of many recognizable literary devices – repeat [ 11 ] and allusion are two normally employed. A more vague modern twenty-four hours device but one that appears with regularity throughout the Old Testament is the HebrewdecussationThe decussation develops narrative power and consequence through the usage of an opposite analogue, where a series of points are advanced in one order, with the same points so made in rearward order. Genesis 19:1-26 is an illustration of a decussation, with v.19:13 organizing the terminal of the first analogue ( the declaration that Sodom will be destroyed ) , and taking to the 2nd analogue that traces the devastation ; Lot’s married woman and her fate terminal the 2nd parallel line. [ 12 ]
As with repeat, the decussation is employed as a narrative tool that underscores for the reader the importance of the significance contained in the transition from both a actual position ( God’s devastation of Sodom and Gomorrah ) every bit good as the over curving significance of obeying God’s bid ( the immorality of the people and the sloppiness of Lot’s married woman ) .
The narration of the events taking to the devastation of Sodom and Gomorrah contain other characteristics of structural involvement. The range of Genesis chapters 12 through 25 is the narrative of Abraham ; the devastation of Sodom and Gomorrah is an of import event in which Abraham, as the supporter throughout the full narrative expanse plays no portion. It is a cardinal principle of Biblical scholarship that the books of the Bible were non ‘authored’ in the conventional sense, but represent a collection of assorted unwritten and written beginnings, the absence of Abraham from the events at Sodom is implicative of these events being written individually from the narrative of Abraham and interjected into the narrative.
A farther facet of the nature of Biblical writing is found at Genesis13:10, where the events of Sodom and Gomorrah’s devastation are referenced in progress of their description in chapter 19. This ordination of the narrative is confirmatory of a well known narrative being presented ‘out of order’ , in acknowledgment of the certain fact that the audience was familiar in progress with the events described. [ 13 ]
The Bible, peculiarly throughout the Old Testament, is full with transitions that contain characters that make the briefest and most fleeting of visual aspects in the narrative, frequently juxtaposed against the actions or words of a cardinal figure, merely to vanish wholly. Many are defined in the most general footings, such asadult maleoradult female, ‘…amplified, if at all, by topographic point name or tribal association merely. Many of them carry out a individual act and so disappear.’ [ 14 ]
These apparently ‘bit players’ , every bit minor as they are, have major literary maps in the narrative as a whole. The most of import of these maps are:
- Plot construction – Nameless incidental characters frequently provide important links in the secret plan and contribute to its impact upon the reader. The mention to the kids of Heth at chapter 23 is an illustration ; [ 15 ] the ‘two men’ who accompany Abraham and Isaac at the clip of the intended forfeit are another. [ 16 ]
- As a agency of making an extra dimension to a major character ; the mention to Ishmael’s nameless married woman at Genesis 21:20 provides greater deepness to Ishmael and his life in the span of a individual poetry – ‘…God was with the male child. He grew up and made his place in the desert, and he became an bowman. He made his place in the desert of Paran, and his female parent got him a married woman from Egypt’ . [ 17 ]
- To convey a sense of the environing societal values ; the immorality of the ‘men of Sodom’ is conveyed through an anon. group [ 18 ] ; Abraham is depicted throughout the Genesis narration in assorted ways through his interaction with remote-controlled individuals as a hospitable figure.
- To allow a wide moral message applicable to all mode of people to be conveyed, one that is non limited to a peculiar character or their weaknesss. The engagement of ‘Lot’s daughters’ [ 19 ] in the events taking to the devastation of Sodom and Gomorrah, and the namelessness of Lot’s married woman and her destiny as a pillar of salt are the best illustrations of this technique. [ 20 ] Reinhartz noted that ‘…The namelessness of the girls ab initio effaces their personal individuality and allows us to glimpse them as Lot must hold done at the minute of his offer: as objects for the sexual enjoyment of the work forces outside his door. In the 2nd topographic point, nevertheless, the namelessness of these adult females allows us to concentrate on their individualities as Lot’s daughters’ . [ 21 ]
The forfeit of Abraham has been the topic of extended academic commentary. Moberly provides a strong sum-up of why this chapter is of cardinal importance, non merely within the Genesis narration of Abraham, but as a linkage to the wining coevalss that will set up the Judaic state:
‘…Within the Genesis portraiture of Abraham ‘s life and his relationship with God, Genesis 22 is the climactic minute. It is non the concluding narrative of Abraham, for there are still two more narratives in which he features. Since, nevertheless, his purchase of a burial topographic point for Sarah anticipates his ain death and burial … and in the drawn-out narrative of the acquisition of a married woman for Isaac the focal point shifts off from Abraham himself to Abraham ‘s faithful retainer ( at Genesis 24 ) , these narratives provide a sort of decrescendo and fix for the plot line to travel on from Abraham.’ [ 22 ]
The Genesis transitions in chapter 22 that describe Abraham’s intended forfeit and his subsequent approval by God are a powerful and empyreal self-contained narration. In 20 four verses the storyteller is able to convey the extent of Abraham’s obeisance to God, his devotedness to his boy Isaac and the wagess bestowed upon him by God for fearing God. The construction of the chapter is perchance the work of two separate writers, given that verses 1 to 19, the specifying facet of Abraham’s life, is followed by a instead commonplace series of genealogical mentions to individuals unrelated to the cardinal subjects of the chapter.
The power of poetries 1 through 19 is conveyed in two distinguishable methods. The first is the immediateness of the image presented. Abraham is fixing to kill his boy Issac, whose very construct and birth had been before decreed by God to Sarah. The reader is placed in the function of witness to an at hand and hideous event as Issac is bound and readied for the fire.
The 2nd mode in which these poetries are effectual is in the usage of symbolism and allusion that creates a prefiguration of the decease of Jesus. Abraham is non God, but he is a godly adult male prepared to hold his boy dice for God’s greater intent ; Abraham’s readyings besides occur over a period of three yearss [ 23 ] ; Isaac, like Jesus, is the ‘lamb’ of this forfeit [ 24 ] . The cardinal subject of man’s relationship to God is expressed here, that if one obeys God, all earthly wagess are theirs.
The narrative of Abraham represents a synthesis of pure storytelling, elusive mentions and powerful illustrations of God’s power and His methods of obliging both religion and obeisance to His will. The construction of the narrative, in its word picture of the actions of its cardinal characters against an frequently anon. background of minor ‘players’ , coupled with the scope of literary devices, including decussation and repeat, guarantee that the narrative is utile to the reader on a figure of degrees.
Alter, Robert. 1981. The Art of Biblical Narrative. New York: Basic Books
Alter, Robert. 1992. The World of Biblical Literature. New York: Basic Books
Brodie, Thomas L. 2001. Genesis as Dialogue: A Literary, Historical, & A ; Theological Commentary. New York: Oxford University Press
Mayes, A. D. H. , erectile dysfunction. 2000. Text in Context: Essaies by Members of the Society for Old Testament Study. Oxford: Oxford University Press
McKenzie, Steven L. and Stephen R. Haynes, eds. 1999 To Each Its Own Meaning: An Introduction to Biblical Criticisms and Their Applications. Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox Press
Moberly, R. W. L. 2000. The Bible, Theology, and Faith: A Study of Abraham and Jesus. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press
New Jerusalem Bible ( e-text version ) hypertext transfer protocol: //www.kofc.duq.edu/scripture/ ( Accessed April 29 and 30, 2007 )
Reinhartz, Adele. 1998. ‘Why Ask My Name? ‘ Anonymity and Identity in Biblical Narrative New York: Oxford University Press
Sarat, Austin 2000 ‘Imagining the Law of the Father: Loss, Dread, and Mourning in the Sweet Hereafter’ Law & A ; Society Review 34, no. 1: 3-46
Seters, John Van. 1975. Abraham in History and Tradition. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press
S.Friedman, Maurice. 2002. Martin Buber: The Life of Dialogue. London: Routledge
Wessner, Mark D. 2006 ‘The Lord as merely and compassionate justice: Chiasma within the narrative of Sodom and Gomorrah’ pp. 1-10Faith and Religion Resourceshypertext transfer protocol: //www.wessner.ca ( Accessed April 30, 2007 )