The United Kingdom is a democracy with a constitutionalmonarch. The queen is the head of the nation, a prime minister is the head ofgovernment. Members of parliament have to be elected through a vote.The United Kingdom does not have a written constitution,however, there is an ‘unwritten constitution’, instead of being one formal writtendocument, Many different sources including statute law, case law made by judges,and international treaties make up the constitution.Central governmentThe central government is the political authority thatgoverns an entire nation. It is highest layer of -government in the UK thatoperates across the whole country.
There are certain responsibilities whichonly this level of government carries carry out. The central government signstreaties and agreements with other nations, bring in new laws or reform oldlaws which need to be changed, it also represents and defends the country.Different political parties make up the central government, there are threemain major political institutions, The Monarch, The House of Commons and TheHouse of Lords. All the institutions play a part when it comes to making lawsand signing treaties.
The government helps the public in many different ways,for example, the government helps fund public education, provide militaryprotection, provide health care and housing to people who are in need. Theyalso set up organizations for relief in times of crisis. People who want tohelp can donate through government organisations and the government will makesure that people’s money goes to the right places. The central government investsinto the public services to keep people safe, reduce crime and the fear of crimefor example, “In December 2017, the government announced that police funding isset to ‘increase by £450 million in 2018”. Home Secretary Amber Rudd said:”Whether it is your local forces, the national picture orcounter terrorism capabilities, this is a strong settlement that ensures forceshave the resources they need to keep us safe””Taxpayers will invest more money in forces because the workour officers do to protect us is absolutely vital, and we recognise demand ischanging”Local government- Responsibilities of the Local Government are:· Education · Emergency Planning· Highways and Traffic· Social Services· Housing · Transport· Refuse disposal and collection· Tax and council tax collection· Environmental health· Registration of Births, deaths and marriages· Planning and development· Street lightning· Rights of Way (CROW Act)· Registration of electors· SafetyThere is a regional council which is broken down intosmaller local councils.
The local councils enforce and develop the laws in thelocal area. The local council is primarily focused on the happiness and safetyof the residents in a local area. This means that they have to do things likemaking sure the roads are safe to drive on, inspect local companies, keep theenvironment clean by reducing litter, monitor the amount of crime in the areaand provide an appropriate response to any increase such as strengthening the localpolice force. They also build schools, hospitals and other social carebuildings and make sure they are up to a good standard.
The central governmentset standards which need to be met by the local government. The Centralgovernment give the local government a certain budget to meet all of thestandards, meaning that the money needs to be distributed wisely so that thingslike street cleaning or the development of plans for construction for things suchas: libraries, leisure centres and housing can be implemented. Recently bins inthe Nuneaton were not being collected due to bad weather conditions. “Unfortunately due to the high volumes of refuse presentedand problems with getting our refuse collections trucks into Lower House Farmand Coventry’s Waste to Energy Plant (the places designated by WarwickshireCounty Council for waste delivery on Saturdays), around 20 per cent of allcollections scheduled for Saturday, January 6 were not completed,” Cllr Longdenexplained.”Extra crews have been placed onto the incomplete rounds andwill collect all outstanding bins by the end of today, Monday January 8. Weapologise for the inconvenience caused and request all residents to keep theirbins presented until collected.
“The Local government work with the public services to ensurethat people living in the local area are happy and does everything possible toensure that all of their responsibilities are carried out. MAJOR DEVOLVED POWERS SCOTLAND WALES N. IRELAND Agriculture, forestry & fishing Agriculture, forestry & fishing Agriculture Education Education Education Environment Environment Environment Health Health & social welfare Health Housing Housing Enterprise, trade & investment Justice, policing & courts* Local government Social services Local government Fire & rescue services Justice & policing Fire service Highways & transport Economic development Economic development Some transport Devolved governmentMain responsibilities of the devolved government· Education· Health· Civil and criminal law· Environment· Housing and local government· Transport· Executive function· Tax-collection· Main roads, traffic lights and controlsThe 3 DevolvedParliaments in the UK:· The Scottish Parliament· The Welsh Assembly· The Northern Ireland AssemblyDevolution is a process designed to decentralise thegovernment, it distributes powers to the three nations, Scotland, Wales andIreland.
These parliaments are self-contained, meaning that they donot have to go through the UK Parliament in Westminster before they pass a law.These parliaments are accountable for their own systems such as education,health and criminal law. A civil servantworking for the any of the governments may need to work with one or more of thedevolved administrations to successfully implement a policy or deliver aservice. The devolved governments may work together to manage the publicservices or may be given exclusive responsibility to certain services, forexample, wales Is responsible for the fire and rescue service. Whereas Scotlandand Ireland are responsible for justice and policing.Evaluation of thedifferent levels of government The central government is the political authority thatgoverns an entire nation, it is the main control point of a state which signstreaties and agreements with other nations, bring in new laws or reform oldlaws which need to be changed and also represent and defend the country. Thelaw are all created with the wellbeing of citizens in mind.
The centralgovernment is needed so that the country can be represented in a structuredmanner, without it the country would lack a structured method of representingthe nation which could lead to more chaotic ways of expressing the opinions ofthe nation. The government prevents chaos and brings countries together havingdifferent departments in place such as the Home Office or the ministry ofdefence. The home office controls security and policing in the UK, whereas theMinistry of Defence protects and defends the UK from terrorism.
The central government have the power to control the amountof money which goes into the public sectors and sometimes make cuts from theservices to decrease any budget deficit, this effects services like the Policeand Ambulance and fire brigade. These cuts mean that the services will haveless resources to serve and protect the nation which puts the public at risk.Regardless of this the cuts are still made. The government need to ensure thatterrorism doesn’t happen, which is why so much power is given to the HomeOffice which controls over MI5 who keep the nation secure. Giving this powerover is nessercary so that the departments can carry out their own tasks andspreading responsibly around makes things easier for everyone. However havingthis much power can be bad as people working for these agencies might violate citizen’spersonal lives, as they have access to such high levels of surveillance. As thegovernment has so much power, people with high levels of authority may abusethe power they have and only do things which benefit them own interests. The government should be constantly assessed by differentcompanies so that they cannot make laws which are in their favour or be bribedby other major organisations to do so, the bank accounts of people working inthe government and the circulation of money should be inspected, this willprevent corruption as people would no want to be exposed for being corrupt.
The local government enforce and develop the laws in thelocal area. The local council is primarily focused on the happiness and safetyof the residents in a local area. Thisis where people in Local area should go to as they listen to people’s views andopinions on the area and try fix any problems. Using the local governments is effectiveas the central government does not have enough time to handle everyone’s issuesfrom all areas in the nation, having smaller authorities is a much betteroption.
Local governments can focus on a specific area and manage things like littercleaning, checking street lights, collecting refuge and making sure the roadsare clean.Whenever the local authorities have a plan which requiresmore money than they can have taxpayers have to fund the extra cost. This couldbe done through raising council tax or government grants. Devolution is a process designed to decentralise the government,it distributes powers to the three nations which make up the UK, Scotland,Wales and Ireland. This distribution is good as it takes stress of the centralgovernment as a whole and makes it easier to focus on specificresponsibilities. Devotion however has led to the UK being broken up forexample, the UK had a referendum for Scotland’s independence as they did notwant to be part of the UK anymore. Overall devolution is a good thing as people needs can becatered to much easier and gives more freedom for people. Devolved Parliaments cangovern the different regions more effectively than the central government canas the central government is in Westminster which is far away from thedifferent regions.
How to voteYou must register to vote before youcan vote in UK elections or referendums In England, Scotland or Wales, youcan register to vote online at gov.uk/register-to-vote.To register to vote in NorthernIreland, a Northern Ireland registration form needs to be completed.People can vote anonymously forsafety reasons.In England, Scotland or Wales aregister to vote anonymously from gov.
uk should be completed.In Northern Ireland a form from theElectoral Office for Northern Ireland website should be completed. Ways of votingFirst Past the Post, is a voting method where members ofCongress are elected in single-member districts, the winner of thecongressional seat is the candidate with the most votes. The losing party orparties win no representation. However people cast their votes directly to apolitical party in proportional Representation and the distribution of seats isproportion to the total votes cast for each party, for example if a partygained 30 per cent of the total votes, they would gain 30 per cent of theseats. BASIS FOR COMPARISON FIRST PAST THE POST PROPORTIONAL REPRESENTATION Meaning First Past the Post, is a voting method where members of Congress are elected in single-member districts, the winner of the congressional seat is the candidate with the most votes. Unlike (FPTP) votes are casted directly to a political party and the distribution of seats is proportion to the total votes cast for each party. Constituency Entire country is segregated into various geographical units, i.
e. constituencies. Large geographical areas are termed as constituencies.
Representative A single representative is elected from each constituency. One or more representatives can be elected from a constituency. Voting Votes are casted for one candidate. Votes are casted for the entire party. Seats The winner of the congressional seat is the candidate with the most votes. The total seats allotted the winning party may or may not be equal to the votes. As opposed, in PR system, the party gets seats in proportion to the votes polled for them. The amount of seats gained Is proportional to the amount of votes, for example if a party gained 30 per cent of the total votes, they would gain 30 per cent of the seats.
Majority In FPTP system, the total seats allotted to a political party may or may not be equal to the votes. As opposed, in PR system, the party gets seats in proportion to the votes polled for them. Winning candidate gets the majority votes.
Accountability People know the candidate whom they voted for which means that they know exactly who is not serving them properly, so they can ask questions. There is no one specifically who can be held accountable as a party is voted for rather than a single person. Clashing of Ideas Since the candidate who wins is the one with the most votes and the political party gets seats in the Parliament, there is no clashing of ideas. Because multiple parties have seats, even parties with a low number of votes, clashing of ideas can easily occur. In 2011, the British public were asked in a referendum onwhether they wanted to change the system to the alternative vote.This is an article from the telegraph.
“David Cameron: why keeping first past the post is vital fordemocracy””Prime Minister David Cameron issues a final rallying cry tovote “no” in the referendum on bringing in the electoral vote.”(FTPT) is a simple way of electing a person who is wanted bythe majority of people, the candidate who gets the most votes wins. It alsoprevents clashing of ideas, this can be looked at as both negative andpositive. The clashing of ideas from different parties’ when using proportionalrepresentation could lead to a compromise which will give everyone some sort ofsatisfaction, however this means that ideas will never fully be carried out totheir full potential. With (FPTP) there is not a clashing of ideas, which meansthings are agreed on and implemented quicker.
This is an efficient method, butdoesn’t promote as much discussion and compromise. Problems can be seen moreeasily in (FTPT) since people know the candidate whom they voted for whichmeans that they know exactly who is not serving them properly, so they can askquestions. Whereas there is no one specifically who can be held accountable in proportionalrepresentation as a party is voted for rather than a single person.