The Educational Psychology Children And Young People Essay

Haziq, a 13 twelvemonth old male child, is the youngest of three siblings. His parents, who are both working professionals, were thrilled when they found out they were traveling to hold a male child after old ages of seeking to gestate. Haziq ‘s older sisters, Leia and Sophia, are 19 and 20 old ages older than him severally and were both already in university when he was born.

Haziq ‘s parents have a bouldery matrimony and they are frequently disputing. When he was three, Haziq ‘s female parent found out that his pa has a married woman and a boy overseas. She was devastated and even contemplated divorce but they both decided against it as Haziq was still really immature and they both felt that he needed a male parent figure. Although Haziq ‘s parents remained together, they lead separate lives despite populating under the same roof. Haziq ‘s older sisters were cognizant of the province of their parent ‘s matrimony and as such, shielded him from their parents ‘ changeless spat. As both of Haziq ‘s parents are frequently busy with their callings, Haziq was frequently left in the company of his grandma who stayed with the household. He was particularly close to his siblings who spent a batch of clip with him.

Haziq was diagnosed with a tummy status when he was five old ages old. Although the status is incurable and he frequently had to be hospitalised when the hurting got excessively intense, Haziq was able to take a normal life. After the diagnosing, Haziq ‘s female parent became particularly protective over him and limited his interactions with other kids as she was afraid that exposure to them may do him more susceptible to other unwellnesss. As a consequence, apart from go toing kindergarten, he was frequently at place in the company of his immediate household members.

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As Haziq got older and more full-blown, he realised that his parents ‘ relationship is non normal as they frequently were non on talking footings with each other even though they lived in the same house. When Haziq was nine old ages old, his sisters moved out of the household place after they both got married. As both sisters were busy with their ain callings and households, they rarely visited the household place.

Although Haziq had mean classs when he was in lower primary, over clip, his classs started to deteriorate and he preferred to be by himself. His female parent realised that he was n’t making good academically when his signifier instructor informed her about it. His signifier instructor besides shared that Haziq is a quiet kid who is non acute to take part in category as he fears that he ‘s non able to make anything right. Based on the instructor ‘s feedback, Haziq ‘s female parent decided to prosecute coachs to assist him with his surveies trusting that he will be more motivated if he is able to execute better in school. Despite the extra aid, Haziq ‘s classs did n’t better.

An Analysis

Social Contexts

To place and understand the issues impacting Haziq, it is of import to analyze him in the different societal contexts and the impact it has on his development. This is done in relation to Bronfenbrenner ‘s ( 1995 ) ecological theory. The theory, which focuses on the different societal contexts that influences an person ‘s development, consists of five environmental systems that range from close-based interactions to influences that are more broad-based. The five environmental systems are the microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem, macrosystem and chronosystem.

Within the microsystem, persons have direct interactions with household, equals, the school and others. As most of an person ‘s interactions and clip are spent with the different groups of people in the microsystem, these people have the most influence and hence the most impact on the person ‘s development. In Haziq ‘s instance, since he tends to maintain to himself when in school and therefore has minimum interactions with his equals, his household has the greatest sum of influence on his development.

Family – Haziq ‘s issues stem mostly from his household jobs. Both his parents are working professionals who work long hours under nerve-racking conditions. As a consequence, they both do non prosecute in effectual parenting ( Crouter, 2006 ) . Harmonizing to Baumrind ( 1971, 1996 ) , parents largely adopt the undermentioned parenting manners: autocratic parenting, important parenting, inattentive parenting and indulgent parenting. Based on Baumrind ‘s definitions, Haziq ‘s parents follow a more inattentive parenting manner where parents are minimally involved in their kids ‘s lives and does non back up and actuate academic public presentation. Due to the deficiency of parental support and the feeling that his parents ‘ occupations are more of import than him, Haziq tends to maintain to himself and is non motivated to stand out academically.

Although Haziq ‘s parents have ever been busy working, the full effects of his parents ‘ inattentive rearing manner was merely felt subsequently as he had the support and attending from his sisters in his earlier old ages, before they both got married and had their ain callings and households. I do experience nevertheless that Haziq ‘s parents may non hold ever been inattentive parents. It should be noted that there is a important age spread between the older kids and Haziq. As it has been a piece since Haziq ‘s parents last had a immature kid, they may necessitate some clip to acquire used to the whole procedure once more.

Another factor which has a important impact on Haziq ‘s development is his parents ‘ matrimonial struggles. Harmonizing to Cummings and Merrilees ( 2009 ) , matrimonial struggles have an inauspicious consequence on kids who are exposed to it. In Haziq ‘s instance, his parents ‘ determination non acquire a divorce may be more damaging to his development as he is continually exposed to active struggle. Although his parents have been in struggle for some old ages, Haziq is now older and in a place to understand what ‘s traveling on. He besides does non hold his sisters to supply him with the emotional support to cover with the struggles he faces at place. Furthermore, as Haziq ‘s parents do non collaborate and join forces with each other and are frequently undermining each other ‘s authorization when parenting, Haziq is frequently left confused and hence at hazard of confronting even more jobs ( Feinberg & A ; Kan, 2008 ) .

Family-School Link – Although Haziq ‘s instructors do supply his female parent with updates about his advancement, it does look that Haziq ‘s female parent is incognizant of his advancement in school if non for updates from the instructor. Based on the feedback provided by the instructor, Haziq ‘s female parent had so engaged a coach alternatively of supplying him with greater parental support, which strongly influences a kid ‘s development, to excite academic accomplishment and motive ( Domina, 2009 ) .

Socioemotional Development

Apart from looking at the kid ‘s development in footings of the different societal contexts, it is besides of import to analyze the kid ‘s development through the old ages. Based on Erikson ‘s ( 1968 ) Psychosocial Theory, an person goes through eight phases of human development in his life. The eight phases are ‘trust versus misgiving ‘ ( first twelvemonth ) , ‘autonomy versus shame and uncertainty ‘ ( ages one to three ) , ‘initiative versus guilt ‘ ( ages three to five ) , ‘industry versus lower status ‘ ( ages six to puberty ) , ‘identity versus individuality confusion ‘ ( ages 10 to 20 ) , ‘intimacy versus isolation ‘ ( 20s and 30s ) , ‘generativity versus stagnancy ‘ ( 40s and 50s ) and eventually ‘integrity versus desperation ‘ ( 60s onwards ) . At each phase of development, the person will see a developmental crisis which has to be overcome. The person ‘s degree of success at get the better ofing the crisis determines the extent at which he/she will be able to set to the following developmental phase.

Harmonizing to the theory, a kid in the ‘initiative versus guilt ‘ phase, where his parents are the most influential people in his life, wants to take portion in activities, be more independent and be given the opportunity to take on more duties. This unluckily did non go on for Haziq. As Haziq was diagnosed with his medical status when he was in this phase, his female parent became highly protective over him. She disallowed him from disbursement clip with his equals and prosecuting in activities outside the confines of his place as she was afraid that exposure to other kids may him more susceptible to falling in. As a consequence, he was non given the chance to seek out new things, exercise any duties and be more independent. This may hold led him to get down developing a sense of guilt and a belief that he is non able to make anything right.

These feelings were carried over to the following stage of the development phase ( i.e. individuality versus lower status ) . In this phase, kids tend to happen joy in interacting with equals and larning new things. Although Haziq ‘s instructors may hold tried to supply him with chances to take on extra functions and duties and to give him a sense of intent, his advancement may hold been affected by his inability to pass on and interact with his equals and his deficiency of motive and parental support. As a consequence, Haziq may hold developed an lower status composite and deficiency self-pride.

Social Development

Position pickings is a cardinal constituent of societal development. As Haziq grows older, he may non be willing to interact with his equals as he is non able to understand and accept their ideas and sentiments. Although kids ‘s ability to accept and understand the point of view of others starts to develop at the age of eight, Haziq ‘s inability to make so may mostly be due to his deficiency of exposure to the issues and jobs faced by others and interaction with his equals. This is consistent with the observations made utilizing Bronfenbrenner ‘s ecological theory and Erikson ‘s Psychosocial Theory.

Possible Resolutions:

To assist Haziq, there is a demand to foremost turn to issues related to the people ( i.e. his immediate household, school, instructors and equals ) in the microsystem as these people have the greatest influence on his development and later the mesosystem which links the different groups of people in the microsystem.

Family – In the context of his household, there is a demand for his parents to gain that Haziq comes foremost. In malice of their busy agendas, they need to do and put aside clip for him. It besides helps if household activities could be planned to enable everyone in the household to acquire together. Haziq ‘s parents besides need to be aware of their parenting manner. They need to gain the impact the inattentive parenting manner they ‘re exhibiting has on him and to follow a more important parenting manner which Baumrind ( 1971, 1996 ) endorses due to its positive results.

In footings of their matrimonial struggles, there is a demand for Haziq ‘s parents to reflect on their matrimony and to make up one’s mind on whether they should go on to be lawfully married or to travel their separate ways. They need to gain that even though they had remained together for Haziq ‘s interest, their frequent struggles is damaging to Haziq ‘s development. Furthermore, they should observe that a divorce is non needfully a bad thing and that research has shown that a important figure of kids do non exhibit major accommodation jobs ( Ahrons, 2007 ) . Regardless of their determination, both parents will necessitate to demo that despite their differences, they truly attention for Haziq and can do things better for him by following effectual coparenting. They should besides talk to Haziq to assist him understand the state of affairs.

Haziq ‘s parents need to gain that they can non renounce their duty to supply him with academic support by simply prosecuting coachs for him. For Haziq to make good in school, it ‘s of import for both parents to be fruitfully and efficaciously involved in his instruction. Haziq ‘s parents need take on a more nurturing and back uping attack to better his attitude towards school and excite academic success ( Epstein, 2009 ) .

Last, Haziq ‘s female parent needs to be less protective over him. Over clip, Haziq will larn to get by with his medical status. Alternatively of concentrating on his medical status, Haziq should be encouraged to seek new things and develop certain involvements. He should besides be encouraged to take part in activities or cantonments which will enable him to interact with his equals. As Haziq will shortly travel to a development phase where his equals will be a important societal influence in his life, it is of import for his parents to promote peer interactions and to acquire to cognize his friends. This manner, he ‘ll be more independent and will experience more competent and ready to ship to the phase of his life.

School/Teachers – The instructors play an of import in assisting make the chances for Haziq to take on more duties and prosecute in activities which will raise his assurance and promote interactions with his equals. It might besides be utile for the school and instructors to promote Haziq ‘s parents to be more actively involved in the school environment by volunteering their services at the school and by acquiring their engagement in other activities that will advance acquisition at place. This will increase their committedness to assisting Haziq achieve academic success.

To promote perspective pickings, activities in the schoolroom should be greared towards assisting him gain that other persons have ideas and feelings to and that it is of import for him to hold an unfastened head.

The instructors should besides set up for regular feedback Sessionss with Haziq ‘s parents to portion with them his advancement in school and for them to foreground their concerns, if any. By set uping a strong home-school nexus, Haziq ‘s parents will be invariably kept updated of his advancement and be able to follow up at place where necessary.


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