The First Opium War Essay

The first opium war occurred between the old ages 1839-1842. In the twelvemonth 1830. China was take parting in a deeply upseting trade ; the exchange of Opium between Chinese indigens and other aliens who were largely Britons. It was done illicitly and most of the bargainers were exempted from revenue enhancements. This meant that the Chinese economic system was enduring adversely since most of its currency was lost to an belowground concern. It besides caused a batch of corruptness among custom workers as there was no jurisprudence modulating this trade. In add-on to this many indigens in China became addicted to this drug.

This led to really austere action by the Chinese emperor in the twelvemonth 1838 ; he executed all the indigens involved in this illegal trade. The Chinese emperor decided to take the issue caput on although there were some advisers who wanted him to legalise the trade. However. he said it was evil and could non even see that option. In the twelvemonth 1839. he sent a Commissioner to the Chinese seaport – Canton. He instructed the commissioner to confisticate all the opium nowadays in foreign ships and failure to make so would take to a decease punishment.

The British Naval Officer tried to deter his citizens from prosecuting in this trade as it was defiling Britain’s image. His warnings landed on deaf old ages and this was one of the chief grounds that caused the first opium war in China. The existent war The war was propelled by the fact that Britain was seeking to coerce the Chinese to merchandise with them in opium. In the twelvemonth 1839. Britain began its onslaught in the little town of Hong Kong. This was so followed by Guangzhou. The naval officer from Britain Sir Elliot ordered a obstruction of the river seafaring to the latter mentioned town.

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But this order was non followed by one peculiar ship hence doing jobs for the naval officer. This brought about the sinking of plentifulness of Chinese ships. To counter this. the Chinese emperor prevented any aid between the Chinese and the British. The British so decided to assail the Chinese harbor- Canton. They sent about four 1000 combatants. They met at the oral cavity of the river and the Chinese were defeated at Ningbo in 1841. In the following twelvemonth. the British occupied Shanghai after their triumph and the war came to an terminal.

The masters were rewarded with a 1 sided pact which shall be examined below. ( Mitsuko. 1971 ) : Treaty of Nanjing The pact was signed between the two states that had participated in the First Opium War in the twelvemonth 1842. The parties involved were as follows ; the emperor of China. her stateliness the Queen of Britain and Ireland. a general from the British company of East India. representatives from Canton. Chapoo. Curates and governors. It was signed in order to hammer a manner frontward so that the trade between these two states could be controlled.

The Treaty declared that the two states will protect each others belongings and lives even when one member is shacking in the other member’s state. It besides spelled out some conditions for Britain’s abode in China’s towns. It reinforced the assignment of officers in five towns within China. Their intent would be to guarantee that British merchandisers were shacking comfortably. without any unjust intervention and they were besides to guarantee inform the British Government about failure of the Chinese authorities to follow.

The pact besides required that the Chinese authorities should give up one town i. e. Hong Kong in which the British Law applied. In this town. merchandisers could be able to restock their ships. ( Mitsuko. 1971 ) : The Emperor of China was told to pay a compensation of six million dollars for endangering to take the lives of British citizens and incarcerating them excessively. This was the sum equal to the money paid in exchange for British topics captured in the twelvemonth 1839. The emperor of Britain demanded compensation for infliction of particular Chinese merchandisers on the British topics.

These merchandisers did non pay them their dues This sum reached the melody of three million dollars. They were besides told to allow the British merchandisers to merchandise with whoever they wanted. The queen besides demanded compensation for the fundss wasted on the hunt for justness through commissioners and officers. This sum was about 12 million dollars. However. the Chinese authorities could subtract from this sum any compensation paid to British topics after they won the war. Specifications were besides laid out on how the4 compensation would be paid I.

e. within three old ages clip. The emperor of the State of China agreed to let go of any prisoners who may hold been held as a signifier of penalty for prosecuting in the opium trade. In add-on to this. the emperor was authorized tom release any members of his ain state who may hold been held for take parting in the Opium trade. He was to subscribe a binding understanding in respects to this. The pact besides directed the emperor to include the ports where British merchandisers will shack in their revenue enhancement programs.

This revenue enhancement must be announced to all people in the imperium and it should non fluctuate. Last. the Chinese authorities would be free from British forces after completion of due payments and they were expected to do the designated towns free for trade. This pact was so signed by all the due parties. Treaty of Bogue This pact was signed in the twelvemonth 1843 between the British and China. It was a alteration of the first pact signed i. e. The Treaty of Nan male monarch. It was signed between commissioners of the two states represented.

It declared that export responsibilities in the chosen five towns where British merchandisers were authorized was to be put in topographic point. It besides included the regulations that would regulate how trade will be conducted in those towns. This was signed by all the parties present. The pact gave authorization to bargainers to cover merely in those designated five towns. It stated that any other towns were non to take part and if any native or alien was found making so. they would be punctually punished. It allowed the Chinese Government to confisticate their ships in those other towns if they were found guilty.

The pact gave a bound to the radius which British bargainers were supposed to make with their ware. If they went beyond this bound. so they were apt to punishment by the full custodies of the jurisprudence. The pact has besides looked at the lodging agreement for occupants in those five towns. It stipulated that the figure of houses built should non be restricted by the Chinese Government but information should be conveyed to envoys about purposes to construct. Rent charges in those five towns were besides supposed to be the same charges that work over the full state.

The pact controlled the privileges which the Chinese authorities would harmonize to other visitants to the states that did non belong to the British authorities. They were expected to give the same intervention to British topics. It besides prevents British jurisprudence surfs from get awaying their female parent states into these ports. If these runawaies are found so they are capable to penalty from the authorities of China. They can non seek political safety in those towns and should be handed over to the British authorization in those towns.

There was besides a ship that was to be given particular authorization to command and look into on trade in those five ports. ( Mitsuko. 1971 ) Treaty of Wanghia This pact was signed between the United States and China in the twelvemonth 1844. It was signed after the former mentioned pact. Its intent was to increase American engagement in Chinese trade. It was similar to the first two. The United States authorities made it improper to merchandise in Opium. ( Kuo. 1933 ) It besides allowed ended the jurisprudence that restricted aliens from learning themselves the Chinese linguistic communication. Third. it disallowed fluctuation of duties within ports.

Besides. the Chinese authorities was forbidden from penalizing or judging US citizens shacking in their state. It was merely supposed to manus wrongdoers to the United States representatives. It besides authorized the US citizens to purchase land within those five ports reference in the first two pacts. ( Swisher. 1953 ) : Treaty of Whampoa This pact was signed between China and France in the twelvemonth 1844. It was aimed at affecting France in trade within China. It had similar contents to those present in the other pacts it had signed after the First Opium War. Bequest of the Opium war on China

The war caused a licking by the Chinese authorities ; accordingly. it paved a manner for high inflow of many aliens i. e. the British. followed by the Americans and finally the France. The immediate deduction was a high addition in opium within China. This led to increased tenseness at first because the Chinese civilization was rather different from any of these aliens ; it besides offended many indigens because they felt like the drug was against their spiritual instructions. ( Chang. 1964 ) On the positive side. China gained from this high inflow by turning economically.

It besides became more developed as many thoughts and goods were introduced into the state. It was a large milepost in China’s route to modernisation. Reference Chang. H. ( 1964 ) : Commissioner Lin and the Opium War. ; Harvard University Press Kuo. C. ( 1933 ) : Caleb Cushing and the Treaty of Wanghia. 1844 ; the Journal of Modern History Swisher ( 1953 ) : China’s Management of the American Barbarians ; a Study of Sino-American Relations. 1841–1861 ; Far Eastern Publications. Yale University. Mitsuko. I. ( 1971 ) : Modern Asia and Africa. Readings in World History Vol. 9 ; New York: Oxford University Press.


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