The greenhouse gases


We know that CO2 is a gas and it is made up of one C and two O atoms. When we breathe out we exhale CO2. CO2 is besides made when something organic is burned and a fire is created. These exhausts enter the ambiance and can frequently do air pollution e.g. auto fumes exhausts, mills etc. CO2 is used by workss for their nutrient.

This gas can besides be harmful to many living things if it becomes toxic. CO2 is seen as one of the nursery gases and can therefore lend Global Warming.

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In the undermentioned experiment you will see how CO2 contributes to pollution.An experiment like this shows better consequences if it is performed on a hot cheery twenty-four hours.


You will necessitate the undermentioned stuffs:

  • 2x thermometers
  • A temperature chart
  • Small sample containers ( sooner plastic ) with labels on it
  • Vinegar
  • Sodium hydrogen carbonate ( baking sodium carbonate )

You will besides necessitate:

  • A clock timer
  • Small H2O
  • Diaphanous glass jars with palpebras


  • Mix the H2O with the acetum solution and split the solution every bit into the two little sample containers.
  • Topographic point the containers each into the glass jars and topographic point a thermometer in the jar every bit good ( between the jar and the container ) .
  • Add the baking sodium carbonate into merely one of the containers and put the palpebra on it instantly. Must label this jar “ CO2 ” .
  • Topographic point a palpebra onto the other jar with merely acetum in it and label it “ No CO2 ” .
  • Allow the jars to stand for 1-2 hours. Take note of the temperatures and jot it down in column 1 of your chart.

  • After this clip is up, place the jars in a cheery topographic point. Once once more look into and jot down the temperatures of each container, but this clip every 5 proceedingss for the following half an hr.
  • Once done, travel the jars into a fly-by-night topographic point and reiterate the timing process.
  • Now you can finish the temperatures that were recorded from each jar, the 1 with “ CO2 ” and the 1 with “ No CO2 ” , the findings are as follows ;


It is noted that during this experiment, precipitation formed on the palpebra of the “ CO2 ” jar and no precipitation appeared on the “ No CO2 ” palpebra jar.

When the jars were placed in the Sun the “ CO2 ” jar rose quickly in temperature every 5 proceedingss over a half hr period while the “ No CO2 ” jar bit by bit and steady rose in temperature. However, the “ CO2 ” jar was higher in temperature than the “ No CO2 ” jar, at the terminal of the 30 proceedingss.When topographic point in the shadiness, the “ CO2 ” jar bit by bit decreased in temperature as did the “ No CO2 ” jar, nevertheless, the temperature was still higher in the “ CO2 ” jar than the “ No CO2 ” jar.

It can be noted that the more CO2 that is released into the ambiance, the hotter the temperature becomes, therefore turn outing that CO2 is a gas that is emitted and can lend to planetary heating, impacting the ozone bed.


Based on my consequences it can be clearly seen how CO2 contributes to pollution/global heating. It must besides be noted that the more CO2 that is present in the ambiance, the effects will be greater.

LO3: ( 80 % ) .

In old articles it has been mentioned how coal excavation companies and conservationists are at dunces with each other because of the enlargement of unfastened dramatis personae coal excavation.I have decided to research the undermentioned subject, where I am an conservationist and am opposing the gap of a new unfastened dramatis personae mine in a grassland country near Ermelo in Mpumalanga.In my statement you will see how I will turn out my point of view on this affair and explicate the relevant factors and research:

What is unfastened dramatis personae excavation?

This is when stone or minerals are extracted from the Earth from an unfastened cavity or big hole.

Impacts of O.C.M. ( Open Cast Mining ) .

Even though coal is an of import trade good and coal excavation creates occupation chances and good for the local substructure of the countries, it can besides hold a negative impact.

My statement includes the followers:

Disadvantages of unfastened dramatis personae excavation.

  • During unfastened dramatis personae excavation a great trade of devastation and muss ( dumping ) takes topographic point.
  • Mining causes mayhem on the surrounding landforms, edifices and natural home grounds of both zoologies and vegetations.

  • There are many impacts that open dramatis personae excavation has, they are:
  1. Environmental hazards
  2. Socio-economic hazards
  3. Political and fiscal hazards

( A ) Environmental hazards

The pollution of surface and groundwater occurs as the heavy metals addition and come in the H2O, and gets contaminated with Acid mine drainage spills. If worlds consume this H2O it is extremely toxic. The dirt quality degrades and aquatic zoologies are harmed. Wildlife and home grounds are destroyed ; the quality of the air we breathe is worsened due to a toxicant nursery gas called methane that is released into the air. The topography of the mined country undergoes major alteration. Bantam microorganisms in the alimentary rhythm are disrupted due to the motion and distribution of dirt.

( B ) Socio-economic hazards:

Coal excavation is really unsafe to the labour force as the on the job conditions are risky.

Bing underground there are hazards of asphyxiation, gas toxic condition, lung malignant neoplastic diseases, fall ining of walls or roofs every bit good as detonations. Many people ‘s lives, both grownups and kids are put at hazard every twenty-four hours when they have to walk across exposed unfastened and unsafe excavation sites in order for them to acquire to school or work. Many deceases occur when people fall into crown holes or firing countries. Mines are really big and they cover a big country of land.

They are unpleasant and unattractive visually to look at. Another danger is when there are heavy rains ; this causes brassy inundations ensuing in eroding of tonss of wastes and H2O taint. Aquatic beings suffer from contaminated H2O. The value of land, houses every bit good as occupations deteriorate drastically therefore taking to the community fall ining.Guest author: Dr Burgess from Water Research Commission writes the following on relationships between Industrial development and H2O usage:Industries that extract minerals from the dirt e.g. coal excavation usage a great trade of H2O. Streams near by are polluted with extremely contaminated gases and metals.

If these should by opportunity enter into the natural H2O and into our organic structures it could do a great trade of injury and harm to one ‘s wellness.As we are all cognizant, H2O is of critical importance to us, non merely socially but economically excessively, and that is why it is important that safeguards are implemented to antagonize this uninterrupted addition of economic activity and the degrading of the environment.The undermentioned findings show that 52 % of H2O is used for agribusiness, 12.

5 % is used by mining industries, 12 % is used for domestic usage and 15 % is needed for nature preservation and the ecology of the environment.There is nevertheless a new technique that should be implemented shortly. It is called the “ Water Pinch Analysis ” besides known as “ Cleaner Production ” technique. Its purpose is to cut down the ingestion of fresh water and waste H2O by doing possible alterations in certain countries. Another option that could be implemented is known as, “ In Sutu Coal Gasification ” .

Eco-tourism is an option where biodiversity is seen as a precedence and the land surface can be preserved for other intents subsequently on.Below are inquiries that should be raised with respect to the unfastened dramatis personae excavation impacts.

  1. Would the land be stable adequate to be used for excavation?
  2. What about the impact of environing country ‘s being contaminated by pollution and toxic gases being released in the air?
  3. Water – Do we recognize the serious deductions of H2O taint?
  4. Noise pollution – Are we prepared for this?

Open Cast Mining Procedures:

With unfastened dramatis personae excavation, the first process is to unclutter away the land from all signifiers of flora – this upsets the eco-system.During excavation activities, deposits, chemicals and metals are discharged into environing Waterss. This causes taint and spread of diseases, in the eco-system.Soil becomes degraded in its quality as it is turned upside down – Toxic substances from below, enter the top dirt.Wind eroding and high surface temperatures besides result.

Drain forms get disrupted and due to this, eroding takes topographic point. Hazardous waste merchandises enter H2O and contaminate it.Dust pollution – Dust from the excavation is necessarily traveling to do air pollution and this becomes a great nuisance. The uninterrupted combustion at coal mopess and coal mines cause harm to the ambiance.

( C ) Political and Financial hazards.


If mineworkers are non treated reasonably and authorities does non run into their demands, striking will happen as political blood feuds are formed against the authorities.Miners will strike if the pay net incomes are cut. They need to protect their well-being, communities and places.


A great trade of fiscal be aftering demands to be implemented carefully as the edifice of the procedure works requires a immense sum of finance.

Capital needs to be evaluated as to how much money can be spent on assorted sectors of excavation from the high engineering machinery to the labour force etc.


With much probe and concern about dramatis personae excavation, I would wish to reason my study with the undermentioned statement.It is vitally of import that suited constructions and methods need to be desperately implemented, to cut down the high hazard factors of unfastened dramatis personae excavation. Surely, with more improved research and engineering, other safer agencies of excavation could be introduced. I feel we at least owe this non merely to the environment or communities but to ourselves. By working together on this, we can do a difference.