The harmful (Rajavel, 2006). 1.1 Research Background Food

The consumption of contaminated beverages or food can lead to food borne illnesses. Food borne illnesses can also cause by harmful substances and poisonous chemicals from the food. Among hundreds of food borne illnesses, a majority of them are infections, which are caused by varieties of food borne viruses, parasites and bacteria (Escherichia, 2015).

Food safety has been in the light of public health issue, and governments internationally can be seen putting in efforts to improve the issue. As food borne illnesses are diseases of infections and toxic from nature through ingestion of food (WHO, 2011). A raising number of 30 percent of people suffering from foodborne illness was reported yearly which is equivalent to 1 in a 6 people (CDC, 2016).

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The Calicivirus viruses group, or called the Norwalk viruses; bacteria Campylobacter, E. coli 0157:H7, Salmonella are the widely known viruses and bacteria that cause food borne infections. There are thousands of bacteria surrounding us in our everyday routine, there are good and bad bacteria. Not all are harmful (Rajavel, 2006).


1.1 Research Background


Food separation is a fascinating and challenging issue concern in present time. It is also very demanding with a constantly changing sea of guidelines, regulations and equipment. Public concerns over food safety issues can overemphasize certain risks and detract from the normal hygienic practice of the importance food separation. The aim is to enhance the prominence of food separation into outdoor cooking equipment. According to Check It, on “The Advantages of Wireless Food Safety Monitoring”. Every year, roughly 48 million Americans suffer from foodborne illnesses and 128,000 are hospitalized – costing the US economy an incredible $152 billion. When you consider that 48% of those illnesses are caught from restaurants, it’s clear that work needs to be done to improve food hygiene and HACCP procedures in commercial kitchens.

(Collin, 2013). The Laboratory for Zoonoses and Environmental Microbiology reported that, cases of foodborne illness are meals prepared in private kitchens which has a raising percentages of 40 to 60%  ( J. Food Prot. 51:663–667 & 58:1405–1411)


Food borne illness is a present threat, which can be prevented with proper care and in handling of food products. According to Food-Related Illness and Death in the United States research, It is estimated that cases of food borne diarrheal disease occur each year in the United States is between 24 and 81 million, which has cost between $5 billion and $17 billion in medical care and lost productivity (Mead et al., 1999). Archer and Kvernberg, reported In 1985 an estimated of 8.9 million illnesses due to pathogens and 24 million to 81 million illnesses due to all foodborne agents. There is approximately 81% unknown agents account of foodborne illnesses and hospitalizations and 64% of deaths each year. Raw food bacteria has covered a percentages of 90% of many of the food poisoning each year which are Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella, Campylobacter, Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus cereus, Clostridium perfringens and Entero-pathogenic Escherichia coli (Al B. Wagner, 2008). As a result only bacteria in large number will cause food borne illness. Therefore, by controlling the initial number of bacterial present, slow down and prevent the number from increasing. Proper cooking and avoid re-contamination helps to destroy bacteria.


India Parenting (Lucy, 2011) stated that the practice of good hygienic is essential as human expose their health towards unidentified risk. It is a fact most new diseases such as bird flu the H9N2 (Guan, Shortridge, Krauss, & Webster, 1999)  and the recent discovery of worm in sashimi which are deadly parasitic worm (Scutti, 2017) are causes of bad hygiene practice that could be avoided.

Al B. Wagner, Jr the Professor and Extension Food Technologist on Food Technology & Processing on Bacterial Food Poisoning (Al B. Wagner, 2008) , claim that Hygiene plays an important role as poor personal hygiene and the improper food preparation and cleaning are one of the highest factors in the contamination of raw and cooked foods which could lead to very serious food poisoning. As mishandling allows bacteria to grows, in the temperature between 40 degrees F (5 degrees C) and 140 degrees F (60 degrees C). It is important to keep raw and cooked food in danger zone any longer than absolutely necessary. Since food-poisoning bacteria are often present in many foods, knowing the characteristics of such bacteria is essential to an effective control program ( Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 29:354–358.). (WHO, 2011) expressed that, almost 2.4 billion human being universally live beneath profoundly unsanitary conditions. Destitute clean behavior, and the expose towards high health issue are exceptionally critical issues.


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