Discuss how subjugation related to your chosen country can attest itself in establishments and societies, and how it can impact on the lives of persons and communities. See and do specific mention to the societal policy response.
The term subjugation is non simple to specify. It is complex and can take many different signifiers. Sometimes it is clearly seeable and at other times more elusive and hard to place. The intent of this research will be to research subjugation and how it can attest itself in establishments and societies and how it can impact on the lives of persons and communities. In order to research subjugation this research will utilize people with a learning disablement at its focal point. First this research will look at what subjugation is and how subjugation of people with larning disablements has come to attest itself in establishments and societies. This research will so research the subjugation faced by people with a learning disablement and the statute law that challenges subjugation. Theory such as Thompson ‘s ( 2006 ) PCS theoretical account will be explored in order to help an apprehension of how subjugation and favoritism operate within society. Finally this research will research valleies and moralss necessary to advance anti-oppressive pattern. Throughout the assignment a societal policy response to subjugation will be considered.
Thompson ( 2006 ) describes subjugation as the inhuman or degrading intervention of persons or groups. It is the unfair and unjust intervention of these persons or groups of people through the negative and degrading exercising of power, both separately and structurally ( Thomas and Wood: 46 ) . “ Power is used to implement unjust opinions, frequently widely, over specific people or groups within society ” ( Thomas and Wood: 46 ) . At a personal degree subjugation can take to demoralization and a deficiency of self-esteem, while at a structural degree it can take to the denial of rights and citizenship ( Dalrymple ad Burke 2006: 121 ) . Any factors which may comprehend a individual as being different from the bulk increase the possibility of subjugation.
Discrimination and subjugation are frequently found when sing people with learning disablements. This could be due to the confusion between mental unwellness and learning disablement and besides the manner people with a larning disablement have been perceived over clip ( Thomas and Woods 2003: 49 ) . Thompson suggests a four portion theoretical accounts that can be used to inform institutional and social positions and supply an apprehension of how people with learning disablements are viewed ( Thompson 1997: 151 ) . The four theoretical accounts include the menace to society theoretical account, the medical theoretical account, the subnormality theoretical account and the particular demands theoretical account. Thompson ( 1997 ) high spots that the first theoretical account illustrates the bulk position of society at the beginning of the twentieth century. “ Social and cultural concepts manifest themselves in a fright of abnormalcy in relation to disablement ” ( Llewellyn, Agu and Mercer 2008: 17 ) . This social position believed that people with physical or learning disablements should be contained in particular establishments as they were a menace to society. This theoretical account led to the medical theoretical account which believed in utilizing a scientific attack to pull off people and control and incorporate what society saw as unnatural behavior ( Llewellyn, Agu and Mercer 2008: 14 ) . The medical theoretical account became prevailing in wellness and societal attention and struggles between the medical theoretical account and societal theoretical account are still evident in societal policy for vulnerable groups ( Llewellyn, Agu and Mercer 2008: 14 ) . The 3rd theoretical account Thompson suggests which can be used to inform institutional and social positions which provide an apprehension of how people with learning disablements are viewed is the subnormality theoretical account. This theoretical account is the measuring of medical damage and the ability to accomplish academically ( Thomas and Wood 2003: 49 ) . An IQ trial was invented to be used to name a learning disablement and to place whether the IQ degree was below normal ( 70 ) , if it was below normal subnormality was diagnosed highlighting differences taking to subjugation ( Thomas and Wood 2003: 49 ) . The concluding theoretical account Thompson used in deriving an apprehension of how people with a learning disablement are viewed is the particular demands theoretical account. This theoretical account considers integrating into society but relies on the designation of the particular demands of the person ( Thomas and Wood 2003: 49 ) . By utilizing this theoretical account, similar to the subnormality theoretical account, people ‘s differences are highlighted, doing integrating into society more hard. Integration into society is hard due to the fact that “ people are fitted into society and society does non accommodate or alter to suit them ” ( Thomas and Wood 2003: 49 ) . Thomson suggests that elements of each of these theoretical accounts may impact current social attitudes. Each could play its portion in explicating the ground for favoritism and subjugation towards people with a learning disablement. “ What all these theoretical accounts have in common is a inclination to marginalize and disempower, to a greater or lesser extent, people with a medical damage ” ( Thomson 1997: 152 ) .
As mentioned earlier the medical theoretical account and societal theoretical account for understanding people with larning disablements is still in struggle. Historically perspectives on remedy, research and intervention have to a great extent influenced how handicapped people are viewed and treated within society ( Llewellyn, Agu and Mercer 2008: 59 ) . The focal point on the medical theoretical account instead than the societal theoretical account can be seen in linguistic communication up until really late. Footings such as ‘spastic ‘ and ‘retard ‘ can be seen in policy and medical processs throughout the 19th and 20th centuries connoting deficiency of map and hence deficiency of worth ( Llewellyn, Agu and Mercer 2008: 259 ) . The medical theoretical account seems to concentrate chiefly on the damage and disregard how society reinforces barriers for handicapped people and so the societal theoretical account of disablement emerged ( Llewellyn, Agu and Mercer 2008: 260 ) . From the societal theoretical account position it is society and constructions that are the more important job instead than the unwellness or disablement itself ( Llewellyn, Agu and Mercer 2008: 261 ) . The media is a powerful establishment for determining social positions and continues to portray people with larning disablements negatively which majorly contributes to structural inequalities and subjugation ( Llewellyn, Agu and Mercer 2008: 262 ) . The Marxist position on sociology saw the industrial revolution and the rise of capitalist economy as increasing widespread societal subjugation. With labour power at this clip seen as such a immense trade good and “ as society is about the relationship between capital and labor, the handicapped individual is of no usage or value ” ( Llewellyn, Agu and Mercer 2008: 262 ) . Learning disablement made it hard to work which led to institutionalisation and segregation. Statisticss show that fewer than 5,000 handicapped people in England were confined to refuges but by the 1900 ‘s this had increased to 74,000 ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www.isj.org.uk/ ? id=702 ) . Oppression from this position must be challenged by looking at cardinal structural issues such as political or economic administrations, the media and countries such as employment ( Llewellyn, Agu and Mercer 2008: 261 ) . It is these barriers to engagement in society instead than the disablement itself that leads to social and institutional widespread subjugation of persons and communities ( Llewellyn, Agu and Mercer 2008: 261 ) . The societal theoretical account of disablement rejects the medical theoretical account saying that it is society that causes disablement non impairment ( Llewellyn, Agu and Mercer 2008: 262 ) .
Having explored how subjugation of people with larning disablements has sociologically developed over clip and the types of subjugation faced by people with larning disablements, this research will now research statute law which challenges subjugation and efforts to advance anti-oppressive pattern and authorization. The Disability Discrimination Act 1995 was introduced to relieve favoritism on the evidences of disablement. Disability in this Act is defined as “ physical or mental damage which has a significant and long term inauspicious consequence on ability to transport out normal twenty-four hours to twenty-four hours activities ” ( Brayne and Martin 1997: 416 ) . This Act creates statute law which deems favoritism on evidences of disablement in employment improper except for certain fortunes such as the constabulary or armed forces and high spots guidelines of how handicapped people should be treated at work or in topographic points of instruction ( Thomas and Wood 2003: 52 ) . The Human Rights Act 1998 was created to try to advance single rights. For people with larning disablements this means that the Act may assist them to populate to the full and freely, on equal footings with non-disabled people ( Thomas and Wood 2003: 52 ) . In footings of economic sciences The Independent Living Fund and the Community Care Act 1996 purpose to assist handicapped people to command and organize their ain attention and budgets ( Llewellyn, Agu and Mercer 2008: 259 ) . Disabled people have become more politicised and campaigned for alteration, an illustration being the Disability Rights Commission which advocates for a rights to independent life ( Llewellyn, Agu and Mercer 2008: 264 ) . The Adults with Incapacity Act 2000 introduces a new manner of back uping grownups who do non hold the capacity to do determinations for themselves due to impairment ( Thomas and Woods 2003: 53 ) . This Act realises that although some complex determinations may non be able to be made other more simple and straightforward picks can be. The Act enables grownups with incapacity to maximize their ain ability, promote the development of new accomplishments and guarantee that whichever intercession is provided is the least intrusive possible ( Thomas and Woods 2003: 54 ) . There is much restriction within statute law through failings of diction and restricted execution which does non ever reflect anti-oppressive pattern towards people with a learning disablement, nevertheless when used positively the jurisprudence can be used to advance self-government, equality and rights, cardinal facets of deconstructing a socially and culturally oppressive society. ( Dalrymple and Burke 2006: 91 ) .
Thompson ( 2006 ) saw anti-discrimination and anti-oppressive pattern as happening on three degrees: personal, cultural and social and developed a PCS theoretical account to dispute subjugation. He believed that in order to both understand and tackle subjugation looking at the single alone is non plenty, a consideration of the person, cultural and structural factors is necessary ( Thompson 2006: 30 ) . The personal degree is the single degree of idea, feelings, attitudes and actions ( Thomson 1997: 20 ) . As persons we have our ain beliefs and values which are “ to a great extent influenced both by our past experiences and our current apprehension of ourselves and the society in which we live ” ( Parrott 2006: 13 ) . Individual values and beliefs are learnt from a assortment of beginnings including household, school, civilization and faith every bit good as the society in which we live, political influence and the media ( Thomas and Woods 2002: 55 ) . Personal values are intrinsic to the civilization in which we live and in each civilization certain societal and cultural values will be exercised ( Thomas and Woods 2002: 55 ) . These cultural values act upon our single thoughts of what is acceptable behavior and how to handle people who are different and so cultural values can underpin how we act towards people with a acquisition disablements which may take to favoritism and oppressive attitudes ( Thomas and Woods 2002: 55 ) . The structural degree of subjugation refers to the web of societal divisions and relates to the ways in which subjugation is institutionalised and ‘sewn in ‘ to the cloth of society ( Thomson 1997: 20 ) . Peoples with larning disablements can be affected through societal division and the power of society in make up one’s minding what is acceptable behavior and which groups of society require and merit support ( Thomas and Woods 2002: 56 ) . By demoing how “ society influences cultural positions, which may in bend impact upon personal values and beliefs ” Thomson highlights the importance of recognizing all three degrees at which favoritism and subjugation operate ( Thomas and Woods 2002: 56 ) . In order to dispute and battle subjugation it is indispensable to hold an consciousness of the types and ways subjugation can happen. At a personal degree it is of import for societal workers to critically reflect on the different values they may keep in order to ease a greater ability to dispute subjugation and re-evaluate pattern ( Thomas and Woods 2002: 56 ) . At a cultural degree the ability to alter attitudes becomes harder nevertheless it is indispensable for practicians to try to advance anti-oppressive pattern at this degree every bit good as structurally. Thomson ( 1997 ) states that in order to advance anti-oppressive pattern on all three degrees persons must jointly dispute the “ dominant prejudiced civilization and political orientation and, in making so, playing at least a portion in the undermining of the constructions which support and are supported by that civilization ” ( Thomson 1997: 23 ) .
As mentioned antecedently, values are intrinsic to practicians being able to rehearse and advance anti-oppressive pattern. Guidelines for professional behavior have been developed through professional values into a codification of moralss which describe behaviors in the signifier of criterions and multi-disciplinary mention points for societal attention practicians. The values associated with societal work are incorporated within the British Association of Social Workers ( BASW ) codification of Ethical motives and Codes of Conduct for Social Care Workers and their Employers published by the Northern Ireland Social Care Council ( NISCC ) in 2002 ( Dalrymple and Burke 2006: 87 ) . Harmonizing to Brayne and Carr ( 2005 ) “ Practitioners have statutory responsibilities, underpinned by professional codifications and personal values to back up the most vulnerable members of society ” ( Brayne and Carr 2005 cited in Dalrymple and Burke 2006: 97 ) . Through these assorted codifications of moralss the publicity of rights, pick, positive instruction and consciousness in society are highlighted which challenge subjugation with people with larning disablements every bit good as many oppressed groups within society ( Thomas and Woods 2002: 61 ) .