The purpose of this research undertaking is a critical analysis of dark touristry in relation to its application to Ground Zero and the 9/11 Memorial Museum in New York, USA. This thesis will analyze dark touristry, related to Ground Zero and the 9/11 Memorial Museum, shadiness of dark touristry, Ground Zero and the 9/11 Memorial Museum, and schemes of them, so to depth analysis of inside informations of Ground Zero and the 9/11 Memorial Museum.The literature reappraisal shows secondary research and quantitative research, conducted on dark touristry is, the shadiness model of dark touristry and some schemes of Ground Zero and 9/11 Memorial Museum. This indicates analyses construction of the instance survey.Through this thesis, the writer purpose and aims were achieved, and farther suggestions and analysis are provided which could assist Ground Zero and 9/11 Memorial Museum better match their purpose and mission.
In this subdivision, why Land Zero and the 9/11 Memorial Museum have been chosen as a instance survey are explained.September 11th, 2001 North America suffered a most serious terrorist onslaught by al – Al-qa’ida. The World Trade Center in New York was destroyed and many people died in this onslaught.
Nowadays, American and New York authorities decide construct Ground Zero in the site of the World Trade Center and construct the 9/11 Memorial Museum for people to remembers and understand how awful terrorist act is. After the 9/11 onslaughts, there are many people remembered victims through in many ways, and visitant Numberss increased. In recent old ages, the dark touristry has start to develop ( Sharpley and Stone, 2009 ) , and the 9/11 onslaughts shocked the whole universe therefore, Ground Zero as a new edifice and the 9/11 Memorial Museum as the chief memorial topographic point, these are the chief grounds for the writer taking them as a instance survey. These are related to dark touristry.
To set about critical analysis of dark touristry in relation to its application to Ground Zero and 9/11 Memorial Museum.
To critically measure dark touristry.To analyze Ground Zero and the 9/11 Memorial Museum as memorial sites.To measure touristry direction schemes in relation to equilibrating the negative and positive side of dark touristry associating to touristry at Ground Zero and the 9/11 Memorial Museum.
Chapter 2. Literature Reappraisal
This portion is composed of research and information into the significance of dark touristry and its assorted sunglassess shadiness, the state of affairs of Ground Zero and 9/11 Memorial Museum, and the schemes used to pull off Ground Zero and memorial museum.
2 Evaluation of dark touristry
Each touristry merchandise has a complex design, therefore it is non can easy to definite dark touristry as “ dark ” or “ light ” ( Stone, 2006 ) . In this state of affairs, in order to separate dark touristry, the writer needs a prudent graduated table to reason and analyze the shadiness of dark touristry. Stone ( 2006 ) made a sum-up of the different shadiness of dark touristry.
Table 1: shadiness of dark touristry
Beginnings:Rock ( 2006 ) : A dark touristry spectrum: sensed merchandise characteristics of dark touristry within a “ darkest – lightest ” model of supply.Each dark touristry site could be analysed by this model, to specify its shadiness. For Land Zero and the 9/11 Memorial Museum the writer will utilize this tabular array to analyze the shadiness from the definition of dark touristry mentioned above, it is easy to see that dark touristry relates to decease and agony, Stone ( 2006 ) mentioning to Miles ( 2002 ) suggests that the difference between “ sites of decease and agony ” and “ sites associated with decease and agony ” should be understood. The former is the site at a topographic point where there has been decease and agony, and the latter is a site which is connected to decease and agony.
Land Zero was built at the site of the World Trade Center, which was destroyed in 2001 and in which about 3000 people died ( CNN intelligence 2009 ) , Ground Zero corresponds to the “ sites of decease and agony ” . On the other manus 9/11 Memorial Museum is non built on the site of the World Trade Center, it merely near to the site and its chief intent is to work as a commemoration, so this museum is portion of the “ sites associated with decease and agony ” .However, thorough other facet in table 1 and based on the chief theory from Stone ( 2006 ) and Miles ( 2002 ) , the sunglassess of Ground Zero and 9/11 Memorial Museum and impact of dark touristry will be analysed tardily in the Findings subdivision.
2.3 An analysis of Ground Zero.
In 09/11/2001, there was an onslaught by terrorists and the World Trade Center was destroyed, New York is presently reconstructing this site which has a new name “ Land Zero ” . 9/11 was the deadliest terrorist onslaught in the history of world, and now there is a different attitude to related to this site.On May 1, 2011 President Obama announced that American Navy Seals had killed Osama bin Laden who was the originator of the 9/11 onslaughts.
Alter ( 2011 ) points out that when America heard this intelligence they celebrated and reflected on, most of them traveling to the evidences of the White House in Washington and to Ground Zero in New York. In this manner Ground Zero may be a topographic point for Americans to retrieve the people who died on 11th September. Although the World Trade Center was destroyed, but now when the people look at Ground Zero, they will remember the memory of 9/11 and they mourn the dead people. In order to offer a good topographic point to people for memory the authorities is constructing a museum in 2006 and put into usage in 2011 ( 9/11 Memorial Museum ) . As can be seen from this topographic point today, Ground Zero and the 9/11 Memorial museum becomes the chief topographic point to hold a memory of dead people.These information which mentioned above show one of the chief intent of Ground Zero and the 9/11 Memorial Museum is to retrieve victims.
In this sense, the provide information help the writer achieve the nonsubjective 2, which is Ground Zero and the 9/11 Memorial Museum are memorial sites in New York.Memory as the chief ground for Land Zero, and in recent old ages, particularly after 9/11 American authorities has been endlessly the implementating rigorous anti- terrorist act steps. Miller ( 2011 ) points that“ aˆ¦the 9/11 terrorist onslaughts set the phase for the “ War on Terrorism, ” in the signifier of subsequent U.S led invasions of Afghanistan and Iraq. ”In the yesteryear, there have been other terrorist onslaughts on America, but none created such a great influence, in the sense of 9/11 which meant terrorist declared war on worlds, and after this event the American authorities made a strong response to terrorist act, and the rebuilding at the site of the World Trade Center means people do non bow to terrorist act ( Walsh, 2001 ) .
In this state of affairs, Ground Zero will be a mark of war on terrorist act. Because of the 9/11 terrorist act onslaughts, the U.S authorities launched a monolithic countermove to terrorist act, and besides affect on the policies and schemes. More inside informations will be analysed in the Findings subsequently.
2.4 Schemes of Ground Zero and 9/11 memorial museum.
Sliverstein et al. , ( 2012 ) in their study refer to after the 9/11 the chief meaning and action of the World Trade Center is rebuild and memorial.
Land Zero is the new edifice on the site of the World Trade Center and today the chief topographic point to retrieve 9/11 victims is at the 9/11 Memorial Museum. The writer summarises a clip line about the chief actions of America and New York between 2001 to 2011.
Table 2: Main schemes of America and New York after the 9/11
This tabular array merely a summarise of the chief schemes and action that authorities used in the past 10 old ages. Through this tabular array could assist the writer clean understand the chief action of American and New York authorities to make after 9/11 terrorist act onslaughts. In the findings, the writer will utilize this tabular array to analysis more item of the authorities do and related to the significants of Ground Zero and 9/11 Memorial Museum to analyses. Except schemes and policies on table 2, the writer will based on Porter ‘s ( 1985 ) generic scheme to do a professional schemes anaysis of Ground Zero and the 9/11 Memorial Museum. There are two ways which suitable for Ground Zero and 9/11 Memorial Museum to accomplish their mission and assist the writer achieve nonsubjective 3: distinction and cost leading.
Although the Ground Zero and 9/11 Memorial Museum are not-for-profits doing administrations but their chief intent is do more people understand 9/11 and how atrocious terrorist act is. In this state of affairs, Ground Zero and the 9/11 Memorial Museum besides needed schemes to develop them.When an administration uses a different scheme, it seeks to offer something alone to its clients that they will appreciate.
This can be found in marketing gross revenues or the existent merchandise or service. This scheme normally involves bear downing a premium monetary value to clients to cover the higher production costs and added-value characteristic. If a administration uses the cost leading scheme so it aims to be the lowest-cost manufacturer in the industry to which it belongs.
This scheme is normally employed by a big concern that produces a criterion with small distinction. It will offer price reductions on the merchandises to farther addition net incomes and market portion ( Porter, 2004 ) . The footing of above-average public presentation within an industry is sustainable competitory advantage.A cost leading attack means a steadfast sets out to go the low cost manufacturer in its industry. Note that a cost leader must accomplish para or at least propinquity on the bases of distinction, even though it relies on cost leading for its competitory advantage, if more than one company purpose for cost leading, normally this is black, it is frequently achieved by economic systems of graduated table. In this instance survey, the Land Zero and 9/11 Memorial Museum are free for tourers, although some other museum besides feel free but the Ground Zero and 9/11 Memorial Museum attempt to add more value on their merchandises.
In the museum, the administration offers more utile value and information to clients ( 9/11 Memorial Museum Organisation ) more service inside informations will be analysed in the Findingss.The distinction attack means that a house seeks to be alone in its industry along some dimensions that are widely valued by purchasers ( Porter 2004 ) . A discriminator can non disregard its cost place. In all countries that do non impact its distinction, it should seek to diminish the cost ; in the distinction country, the costs should at least be lower than the monetary value premium it receives from the purchasers. The countries of distinction can be merchandise, distribution, gross revenues, selling, service and image. In this paper, because of Ground Zero and 9/11 Memorial Museum are free for clients, therefore the cost of merchandises in non gong to be the centre of analysis in this paper. How are Ground Zero and 9/11 Memorial Museum different? Based on Donofrio ( 2010 ) and Nevins ( 2005 ) refer that 9/11 is the most serious and atrocious terrorist onslaught in the history of world, and caused a really serious impact on worlds, particularly households.
In this regard, Ground Zero as the site of this terribel incident it has a particular significance, but besides it is the most direct topographic point for people to hold a commemoration for 9/11. For 9/11 Memorial Museum, today this site has become one of the most of import topographic points for people to retrieve 9/11. Because the topographic point of Land Zero is crowded by traffic, if excessively many people go at that place to for recollection it will impact on traffic, so the authorities built a museum near by the site of the World Trade Center. For the grounds mentioned above, the Land Zero and 9/11 Memorial Museum are different from other museum and dark touristry sites. Differentiation scheme is suited for them to supply a high degree of merchandises and services.
In the findings the writer will do more analysis about these two schemes.
This chapter makes a summarised rating of dark touristry, the writer pays more attending on the shadiness of Ground Zero and the 9/11 Memorial Museum, this is in order to understand the nature of dark touristry, and the other portion assess the impact of dark touristry will be analysed in the Findingss.
Because the writer considered understanding nature of the dark touristry could assist author to better analysis. Dark touristry is a whole industry, in this paper the writer chose Ground Zero and 9/11 Memorial Museum as instance survey, so in this portion writer besides give some short rating of Ground Zero and 9/11 Memorial Museum, a simple analysis the shadiness of Ground Zero and 9/11 Memorial Museum, and what their mean, it gives out a brief sum-up of them. The portion of 2.2 – 3 the writer based on the features of Ground Zero and 9/11 Memorial Museum point out two suited schemes for them to develop, accomplish their mission and seek to offer a high degree of service and information to tourers.In portion 2.2 of literature reappraisal, the writer gives out an overall model and construction of the whole paper, and expounded which different aspects the writer considered and analysed to accomplish the purpose of this paper based on other writers ‘ theories which author researched through secondary research and qualitative research.
Chapter Three: Methodology
There are many different attack and methods to roll up informations and information in order to accomplish the ultimate end and work out the research inquiry. This chapter mentions how and why the research informations were collected, and besides advantages and disadvantages of the chosen methods and how to rectify the disadvantage are presented. The information collected are dependable, believable, and reliable. Steward and Kamins ( 1993 ) point out that the chief research methods could be divided into primary research, secondary research, qualitative research and quantitative research. As the writer determined the overall usage of secondary research was chosen in this undertaking to accomplish the purpose, so methodological analysis will supply sufficient justification to explicate why secondary research was selected. Thoms ( 2009 ) points out that successful research should include the undermentioned elements: intent, inquiry, attack, and method. Hart ( 2007. p28 ) argues that the process for explicating a method is a system of methods and regulations to be collected and analysis of informations and information.
In the undermentioned paragraph the writer will follow Thoms ( 2009 ) and Hart ‘s ( 2007 ) elements to show the methodological analysis and analyse why secondary research was chosen to roll up the informations and how to analyze the information.
3.2 The Research Procedure
To find the pick of attack in the research procedure, the writer will utilize the undermentioned ”Research Process ‘Onion theoretical account ” , introduced by Saunders et Al.
( 2003 ) is used. The research procedure onion allows the research worker to place the many different beds in the research procedure and to extinguish or place the most suited procedure.The research procedure ‘onion ‘ consists of the undermentioned five different beds:The theoretical account is used by get downing from measure one, the outer bed, which illustrates research doctrine, and skining off the beds when different standards have been set until making the terminal, which introduces the possible informations aggregation methods.
Once the last measure has been reached, the parametric quantities of the research have been established.
3.3 Type of research
The first phase of the research onion is called research doctrine. Saunders et Al ( 2003, p. 83 ) argue that the research doctrine depends on “ aˆ¦the manner that you think about the development of the cognition. ” There are four chief doctrines that are used to near the research: rationalist, interpretative, pragmatism, and phenomenology.There are two characteristics of positivism doctrine, they are belief that the natural and the societal scientific disciplines could assist the writer achieve the purpose through the aggregation of informations and information and to explicate, so offer an external world informations support and explicate the points ( Bryman 2001 ) .
On the other manus, the interpretivistic doctrine asserts that the premises of both doctrines are indefensible ; particularly in instances where the aims of survey are influenced by many factors, and are highly hard to insulate and command in experimental research lab scenes ( Hirschheim and Klein 1994 ) . The realistic doctrine portions two characteristics with a positivism doctrine: a belief that the natural and the societal scientific disciplines should use the same sorts of attack to the aggregation of informations and to account, and a committedness to the position that there is an external world to which scientists direct their attending ( Bryman 2001 ) .The first three are non appropriate to this survey as the rationalist paradigm requires chiefly quantitative informations and uses big samples ; interpretative paradigm is more concerned with bring forthing theories and pragmatism investigates relationship between two variables. The latter 1 has been used for this survey as it was the most suited for this type of research.The phenomenological attack can be applied to a individual instance, which is appropriate to this research survey as the research worker used one Land Zero and the 9/11 Memorial Museum as a instance survey for probe. The usage of phenomenology in the scenario so was to look into what presented itself that is the tourer attractive force, its installations and public presentation and so research ‘behind the scenes ‘ and inquiry how the touristry operators sell themselves and of any particular techniques which are used to make this. This is summarized by Mariampolski ( 2001 ) :“ Harmonizing to phenomenology, the intent of the human scientific disciplines – which presumptively includes market research – is to prise beneath the surface to expose these classs and wonts of head that form out perceptual experiences.
”This research survey lends itself to a realistic attack, where the writer recognises that countries such as ‘strategy ‘ and ‘visitors attitudes ‘ can non be measured and studied in the same manner physical procedure can. Alternatively, the writer wants to detect the mechanisms that brought Ground Zero and the 9/11 Memorial Museum prosper and where possible, will seek to mensurate the theory applied within the survey. ”The being of viing, or even accounts is one of the characteristics of realist research. ” ( Fisher, 2004. P 16 )
3.4 Research schemes and attack
The research aims were to look into the cardinal prosodies as indexs for success ; this involved conducting secondary research by analyzing informations and studies. Based on the aims, it can be said that this research is an explanatory survey.
Harmonizing to Robson ( 1993 ) , this is a type of find is:“ What is go oning ; to seek new penetrations ; to inquire inquiries and to measure phenomena in a new visible radiation. ”Exploratory surveies are about detecting new information and bring forthing thoughts and hypotheses. The research worker explored the factors that contribute to Ground Zero and the 9/11 Memorial Museum, and how these topographic points deriving a competitory advantage as these were unknown prior to carry oning the survey.The attack to the survey involved a combination of inductive and deductive attacks, inductive because the research worker collected informations and so analysed it to pull decisions and offer theories ; deductive because the research worker studied old research and grounds through the literature reappraisal and so compared it to findings to see how they corresponded or contrasted with each other. ”The strength of inductive statements is frequently weaker than tax write-offs. Tax write-offs are certainties but inductive decisions are chances ” ( Fisher, 2004.
P 76 )These diverse methods country peculiarly suited for the research as it requires different analysis and allows for more research to be conducted and analysed. Some qualitative informations were used for secondary research, affecting analyzing statistic at figures which relates to the three aims in happening out the indexs of success. Once this information was analysed decisions were offered to how Ground Zero and the 9/11 Memorial Museum additions a competitory advantage.
5 Research pick
The survey will profit from the usage of current secondary information to do clear many of the contradictory findings throughout assorted writers ‘ work, hence, a report-based attack to data aggregation was adopted, by analyzing the one-year studies and studies conducted. In the undermentioned subdivision the writer will analyes why secondary research was chosen.Gene ( 1976 ) points out that secondary research is a manner to reanalyse informations to reply the inquiry, to accomplish the intent, or use old informations to reply a new inquiry. Therefore, secondary research is through books, diaries, web sites, or other research workers ‘ findings were used to roll up informations and stuff.
For primary research and secondary research each have their ain advantages, for primary research, Steward and Kamins ( 1993 ) indicate that primary research have the undermentioned advantages. The first is primary research which could let the research worker collect the informations they want and report it in a good manner to back up the research worker. The 2nd is primary research enables the writer to better appreciation and command how the information is collected. The last is the manner to assist companies who under take primary research to maintain information hidden from the rivals and perchance offer an “ information advantage ” to these companies. Primary research has some lacks but for the writer, the undertaking ‘s research will utilize the secondary research.The writer will first point out is to the advantages of secondary research. Steward and Kamins ( 1993 ) besides given some advantages of secondary research.
The biggest advantage of secondary research is salvaging clip and cost, because secondary research allows the writer to utilize of secondary informations to back up a point of position and this will be easier, and sometimes secondary research could supply a higher quality of informations than from a new research, like primary research. If the writer wants to obtain some information about suggestions for job planning, research hypotheses and research methods, secondary research could supply these extra advantages. In add-on, secondary research besides helps research workers to clear up the issue they want to analyze, and old primary research can assist clear up the focal point of the survey.Although there are some lacks with secondary research, Bryman and Bell ( 2007, p.334 ) point out the restriction of secondary research as the undermentioned three:1. Lack of informations associating to the research.2.
The information that are collected are complex ; some of these informations have a big figure of respondents and variables.3. The quality of informations is non governable.
3.6. Construction of the research
For this thesis, a batch of informations were obtained from mentions beginning such as books, diaries, studies, and webs.
Most books which author found were in university library. Not merely books, but besides a big figure of diaries, magazines, E – bookwere used. For secondary research, the writer besides included information from found web sites. The web of all the information from the New York authorities web sites, local authorities web sites, other studies, and Emerald, in these informations besides include information from E – books, these can guarantee the information ‘s genuineness, dependability, truth and credibleness. Real informations are better to back up this thesis, and do this thesis more believable and do up defect of secondary research.Harmonizing to the purpose and aims, there is much information and information to back up this thesis, nevertheless, many of these informations beginnings are non irrelevant. For this ground, the writer will see many facets of this thesis to take the relevant, believable, accurate information, the writer will besides see the quality of informations, twelvemonth of information, and when it was published.
3.7 Assessment conventional
Rudestam and Newton ( 2001, p. 60 ) argue that you need to maintain a position, and do an rating of the advantages of this survey, at the same clip do a comparative survey with same or similar jobs.
The intent of the appraisal diagram is to guarantee that informations aggregation is believable, dependable, effectual and could be used for this survey.1. Survey of major issues:Analysis of what are the chief issues to be investigated and definition of the construct of the writer ‘s work, allows comparing of similar surveies.
2. HypothesissTo ask and measure what hypotheses has been stated and whether the theoretical model is narrowed or broadened3.The appropriate informations for the surveyTo oppugn whether the collected informations are appropriate and how they have influenced consequences and findings.
This chapter explains why the writer would take secondary research to roll up and measure informations. Meanwhile, the writer besides cognizant of the restriction of secondary research, hence, the writer would analysis more information and theories to back up this survey. In this portion, the construction will be illustrated that how the writer collect information, how to choose suited, right and accurate information.
Chapter 4 Findingss
1 Evaluation of Dark Tourism.
Part 4.1 will present the state of affairs of “ dark touristry ” and supply a depth analysis of dark touristry in order for the reader to derive an overall construct of dark touristry, and the inside informations of Ground Zero and 9/11 Memorial Museum will be given in portion 4.2. This paper uses Ground Zero and the 9/11 Memorial Museum for the instance survey. The museum is a sort of exhibition demoing images, voices, and experiences, hence, this portion critically examines the value that modern-day and controversial exhibitions techniques play in the visitant experience at sites of historical significance.Harmonizing to Lennon ( 2000 ) , dark touristry is a sort of touristry ‘products ‘ that signify a cardinal displacement in the manner in which decease, catastrophe and atrociousness are being handled.
Sharpley and Stone ( 2011 ) besides indicate out that dark touristry includes travel to sites about deceases, catastrophes and atrociousnesss. It can be easy to understand the definition of ‘dark ‘ touristry ( besides known as black touristry or grief touristry ) as a sort of touristry merchandise, intending a topographic point that people visit in memory of decease, catastrophe, agony, force or atrociousness.One emerging country of particular involvement has been identified by Lennon et Al. ( 2000 ) as ‘dark ‘ touristry. This type of touristry involves visits to ‘dark ‘ sites such as battlefields, scenes of hideous offenses or Acts of the Apostless of race murder, for illustration concentration cantonments. Dark touristry remains a little niche market, driven by a broad assortment of visitant motives such as bereavement, recollection, instruction, ghastly wonder or even amusement, depending on the societal, cultural and political context ( Stone, 2006 ) . In this survey, the writer takes a impersonal stance on this issue. There are both positive and negative facets in modern-day exhibition techniques.
Consequently, a peculiarly complex issue revolves around the ingestion of dark touristry. Peoples normally visit such dark sites for affectional and controversial thoughts. Person, within modern-day society, visits such topographic points out of regard and recollection. Person could obtain a secret pleasance in staring on the macabre. While, some people contemplate their ain mortality at such attractive forces and exhibitions ( Stone, 2006 ) .Presents, visitants are no longer satisfied to droop on the beach or gather around the hotel saloon with other tourers.
The increasing attending paid to the phenomenon of dark touristry may arguably be diagnostic of the tendency within academic circles to place and label specific signifiers of touristry, or to subdivide touristry into niche merchandises and markets ( Novelli, 2005 ) . Visiting Nazi decease cantonments in eastern Europe as a vacation itinerary, basking household field daies on the battlegrounds in northern France, buying keepsakes at Ground Zero and leting schoolchildren to stare upon tools of anguish at the London Dungeon, are all illustrations of the macabre exhibition.Consequently, the term ‘dark touristry ‘ has been bit by bit come ining the populace, such as academic and media discourse.
By definition, dark touristry mean the visits, knowing or otherwise, to purposeful / non-purposeful sites which offer a presentation of decease or agony ( Stone, 2005 ) .Similarly, Tarlow ( 2005 ) identifies dark touristry as trials to topographic points where calamities or historic deceases have occurred and that continue to impact on people`s lives. Dark touristry sites can be divided into several classs and can be defined in footings of site construction and tourer experience characteristics.
The usual type of site is interpretative and historical, whether it is located at the primary scene of an atrociousness or at a geographically unrelated topographic point. Often taking on the signifier of a museum, such topographic points exhibit a narrative and an event-based position of force, taking the tourers through the history and inside informations of a peculiar calamity. An ‘in-context ‘ technique, ( Kirshenblatt-Gimblett, 1998 ) to contextualise via labelling and account, characterises such shows and works to show force as interpretable and cognitive through instruction and information.
1-1 Positive affects of dark touristry
Tung and Ritchie ( 2011 ) states that touristry is a manner for people seek the experiences and open a manner to soaking up of those experiences. Peoples cod experiences through travel, travel different topographic point, run into different people and civilization and experiment different life manner. Understand universe could assist us understand ourselves and develop ourselves ( Lanterman 2007 referred to Boniface 1998 ) . Although people can larn many things from school, but experiences of life should experiment by people themselves, touristry provides a manner to us to larn. In ancient clip, Marco Polo traveled to Asia from Europe, when he backed to his state, he brought many progress engineering to his state and made European experiment a batch of new things which they ne’er saw before. Today, with developing of dark touristry, there are many new things for tourers to see enrich themselves.With the grade of substructure and normalcy that surround the supply of dark touristry, even on changing graduated tables ( Stone and Sharpley, 2009 ) , the progressively socially acceptable regard on decease and its reconceptualisation either for amusement, instruction or memorial intent offers both the person and corporate ego a practical confrontational mechanism to get down the procedure of neutralizing the impact of mortality.The educational significance of dark touristry.
Sharpley et Al. ( 2010 ) province that in the UK, around 30 % of schools undertook Tourss to battlegrounds. Visiting battlegrounds provides an chance to convey history to life, for history pupils to derive an apprehension of what it might hold been like to be a soldier of the clip. Religious Studies pupils may see sites of mass slaughter in order to research the religious issues and the reactions of different religions ( Sharpley et al. , 2010 ) . For Land Zero and the 9/11 Memorial Museum, they are a portion of history of homo, and they as the mark of 9/11 it own a particular important, and visitants could larn many things about terrorist act and peace in these. Although a circuit may exhibit some peculiar darkness, the experience of sing battlegrounds may supply immature people with a opportunity to research their reactions to decease. This reflects the possible mediating function of dark touristry.
Second, is full of memory to visits. Commemoration and reading are two ways of pacifying feelings such as guilt, fright of forgetting, recollection and rapprochement ( Sharpley et al. , 2010 ) . A mass figure of visitants to Auschwitz may believe of their visit as a pilgrim’s journey, peculiarly visitants who are subsisters or household members of subsisters and victims ( Keil, 2005 ) . Significant contention surrounded the building of the sing platform at Ground Zero and the 9/11 Memorial Museum, enabling insouciant or even voyeuristic visitants to stand aboard those mourning the loss of loved 1s ( Lisle, 2004 ) . One of the chief intent of Ground Zero and the 9/11 Memorial Museum is supply a topographic point to people for retrieve the victims in 9/11 terrorist act onslaughts, which will be depth analyses subsequently in portion of 4.2.
For this subdivision, Ground Zero and the 9/11 Memorial Museum are full of memory for people to see.Some touristry finishs expose how violent events experience retrospective rating within their given societal contexts ( Minnaert et, Al. 2009 ) . There are sites which demonstrate historical individuality and memory, either through the building of a memorial or through the riddance of grounds from a historic site. Besides take Land Zero and the 9/11 Memorial Museum as an illustration. In the 9/11 Memorial Museum there are many images and pictures to demo the existent violent of 9/11 terrorist act onslaughts,The following meaning of dark touristry and museum exhibition is offer a reconstructing genuineness to the clients.
The effort at maintaining the site as it was at the minute of force besides suggests how touristic genuineness is employed. Authenticity has been a longterm concern for touristry bookmans, who see the tourer brush being influenced by visitants ‘ outlooks that hosts and conservators strive to run into ( Smith, 1989 ) . Some attractive forces, which are located at the topographic point of the existent force, frequently rely on an ‘in situ ‘ technique, whereby exhibitions are given context through the re-creation, care or Restoration of the home ground in which they occurred ( Kirshenblatt-Gimblett, 1998 ) , and Ground Zero and the 9/11 Memorial Museum will be a good illustrations to analyze this point.
As people know, Ground Zero is rebuilt on the site of the World Trade Center, and the 9/11 Memorial Museum is located to Ground Zero. The ruins of the World Trade Center is the mark 9/11 terrorist act onslaughts and Ground Zero is a new edifice of the World Trade Center, it besides could be the mark of 9/11 and it could remind people retrieve 9/11. For the 9/11 Memorial Museum, there are many beginnings about 9/11 terrorist act onslaughts includes images, exposures, pictures, voices and name of victims, all of these beginning are existent reflect 9/11 terrorist act onslaughts to visitants.
4.1-2 Negative effects of dark touristry.
Dark touristry has both positive and negative facets, the negative affects of dark touristry will be analysis as followers.The first negative consequence is ethical and ideological issues. Dark touristry affords the conceptualization of decease and mortality into signifiers that stimulate something other than original panic and apprehension.
Ethical motives have been conceptualised as regulations and rules that assert authorization to steer the actions of groups and communities ( Singer, 1994 ) . The history of moral doctrine involves some constructs of behavior such as systemising, supporting, rethinking and urging, which indicates moralss are non inactive constructs ( Singer, 1994 ) . Tourism moralss are discussed in the context of touristry being the chief economic engine that can negatively anneal and act upon host communities in a finish which is regarded as culturally sensitive ( Miller et al.
, 2000 ) .Seaton et Al. ( 2004 ) province:“ Persons jointly assemble in apparently ‘dark infinites ‘ and regards upon seamy human activity or jointly consume heartache and calamity that is frequently reported upon by the media as ‘moral terror ‘ . ”Although Ground Zero and the 9/11 Memorial Museum have many positive facets, but for the Al Qaeda, possibly they will thought Ground Zero is masterwork of them. In recent twelvemonth, person said the topographic point where Bin Laden died should be a scenic topographic point, and some intelligence ( foxnews, 2011 ) online showed person worried if this topographic point go to a attractive forces, will pull Bin Laden ‘s followings come here to idolize.
In a sense, this will advance the development of terrorist act. Dailymail News ( 2011 ) besides indicate out that “ there are frights that 1000s of al Qaeda sympathizers could flock to the topographic point where he was shot. ” BBC ( 2011 ) provinces, Bin Laden as the leader of Al Qaeda, his topographic point is really high, but besides a awful individual. It is difficult to state Ground Zero and the 9/11 Memorial Museum will non pull al Qaeda. In order to avoid this job, need the authorities provide a utile schemes to pull off Ground Zero and the 9/11 Memorial Museum. Lisle ( 2007 ) point if a topographic point will make dark touristry, they must hold a good system to pull off in order to forestall some societal jobs, and Tarlow ( 2005 ) besides argue this point, if the local authorities could non pull off it good the dark touristry will steer tourers go to a incorrect manner, it is non good for touristry develop. Actually, America and New York authorities so through efficient schemes, and more inside informations of schemes will be analysed subsequently in the portion of 4.
3.Lennon and Foley ( 2000 ) argue that horror and decease have become constituted trade goods, on sale to tourers who have an enduring appetency for the darkest elements of human history. Some visitants seek superficial amusement, freshness and merriment. The keep visitors` attractive force creates merriment and amusement at a fundamental degree. As a tourer attractive force it has strategically deployed forbidden topics and commercially exploited macabre and tragic history.It is unacceptable to do net income from the deceased, and in peculiar, from those deceasing through ill-famed Acts of the Apostless of force and exhibiting commercial activities at such topographic point ( Sharply et al. , 2010 ) .
For illustration, Holocaust sites, such as Auschwitz, to what extent should visitor services are provided. Land Zero and the 9/11 Memorial Museum as a topographic point to retrieve 9/11terroeism onslaught and decease people, the orgainsation offers wholly free service to visitants.For dark touristry, the positive facet could assist Ground Zero and the 9/11 Memorial Museum to steer visitants, to supply educational and genuineness information, to reconstruct history to tourers. Meanwhile, they can truly do the visitants see how dangers of terrorist act during a visit, and which can move as advocators to boycott function of terrorist act. The positive promotion achieve the original significance of Ground Zero and the 9/11 Memorial Museum, it is to retrieve the victims, every bit good as the battle against terrorist act.
From the other manus to demo visitants the valuable benefits of peace. Besides mentioned that in the old, dark touristry besides has its negative side, in this instance survey, for Ground Zero may go to a accomplishment for Al Qaeda, this requires the America and New York authorities to pull off with active schemes, promotion, and go on to supply a positive impacts to the visitants, in order to understate the negative impact. However, the sites or attractive forces such as Land Zero and 9/11 Memorial Museum still necessitate efficient and proper development, direction and publicity. Undoubtedly, relevant specializers with good apprehension of the phenomenon of dark touristry within societal, cultural, historical and political contexts are basically required.
4.1 -3 Shades of dark touristry
As mentioned above dark touristry it is non a simple construct to sell as a simple merchandise, it is multifaceted, therefore the writer will utilize sunglassess ( table 1 in the literature reappraisal ) to analyze dark touristry from different angles.Rock ( 2006 ) refers to Seaton ( 1999 and 2002 ) who points out that merchandises of dark touristry non merely rest with tourers ‘ gustatory sensation, but are besides influenced by the media, commercial selling schemes of the administrations and providers, and the political and cultural clime.
Based on these grounds Rojek and Urry ( 1997 ) divide the shadiness of darkness for dark touristry into two chief classs: events ( such as war, slaughter, catastrophe, terrorist onslaught ) and files of representation ( such as images, movies, and novels ) . Strange and Kempa ( 2003 ) argue that although each dark touristry site has its ain features, it is still difficult to state which is dark and which is white, significance that “ dark ” or “ white ” are excessively wide to specify a dark touristry site, and in this instance “ darker – lighter touristry paradigm does so be ” Stone ( 2006 ) refers to Miles ( 2002 ) . Due to the features of dark touristry, is best understood when the sunglassess of dark touristry are discuessed, as this would assist the writer when analyzing Land Zero and the 9/11 Memorial Museum better. In this thesis, the writer will utilize the shadiness model mentioned in the literature reappraisal is used to analyze the instance. Stone ( 2006, p,152 ) based on Sharpley ( 2005 ) remarks that:“ aˆ¦based upon differing strengths of intent with regard to both the supply of and ingestion of dark touristry, the different ‘shades ‘ of dark touristry may be identified. ”As the “ shadiness ” of dark touristry will be influenced by supply and ingestion, therefore the supply plays an of import function in dark touristry, and it is necessary to understand the assorted types of providers of dark touristry.
Stone ( 2006 ) summarises seven different types of dark providers, they are: dark merriment mills, dark exhibitions, dark keeps, dark resting topographic points, dark shrines, dark struggle sites and dark cantonments of race murder. Based on the definition of each provider, the merchandises of dark exhibitions should associate to decease and agony. Land Zero and the 9/11 Memorial Museum are topographic points for people to retrieve the terrorist act onslaughts and the 9/11 Memorial Museum shows many images, voices and portions the narratives about the terrorist act onslaught, therefore these two topographic points belong to “ dark exhibitions ” .
Meanwhile Stone ( 2006 ) that argue the dark exhibitions should be full of instruction and meaning, to do people larn something and addition experience from them. For this survey, the significance of Ground Zero and the 9/11 Memorial Museum are mentioned in the literature reappraisal, based on Stone ‘s ( 2006 ) dark provider, the writer will give more significance in the undermentioned portion, every bit good as an analysis of their shadiness by table 1.
4.2 An analysis of Ground Zero and 9/11 Memorial Museumaˆ‚
In this subdivision the writer will analyze the different sunglassess of dark touristry and analyze the shadiness and meaning of Ground Zero and 9/11 Memorial Museum. In portion of literature reappraisal, the writer already has given out two chief justifications for them, they are: memorial topographic points and mark of the ugly side of war on terrorist act. In this subdivision, the writer will hold an in deepness analysis these issues.
First, in previons subdivision it is seen that dark exhibitions should be full of instruction, so the educational facet will be looked at foremost. As people known, heartache will damage the physical and mental wellness of homo, and they should pay more attending on societal activities, past memorises and acquire a vision for the hereafter ( Parkes 2002 ) . Base on this theory, Ground Zero and the 9/11 Memorial Museum they record the heartache of 9/11 terrorist act onslaughts, but the new edifice of museum and reconstruct the World Trade Center is a mark for people to retrieve the people who died in the onslaughts ( memories of the yesteryear ) and run into the new life ( vision for the hereafter ) , therefore the Land Zero and 9/11 Memorial Museum confirm Parkers ‘s ( 2002 ) point of position, stating people vividly about history and heartache, therefore these two topographic points are non merely topographic points for people to retrieve, but besides a mark for people to get down a new life.In add-on, in authorities web site of 9/11 Memorial Museum they cooperated with New York City Department of Education and the New Jersey Commission on Holocaust Education ( 2011 ) to do instruction programs to offer utile educational plans to offer information and cognition about the events of 9/11, history of onslaughts, and the station – 9/11 universe. Meanwhile, they besides help people who have lost people in the terrorist act attacks out of the hurting and heartache.
The authorities web site said they received many parents message that they do non cognize how to learn their kids the history about 9/11 and what happened in the 9/11 terrorist act onslaughts, in this manner the 9/11 Memorial Museum offer a program on their web site to all parents, on how to state the true history of 9/11 event to their kids, and this information is all free. The aim is to confront up to the history is necessary for the people, and everybody has a right to understand the history, therefore the instruction and larning programs of 9/11 Memorial Museum offer an effectual manner for people to understand their history. From these, the 9/11 Memorial Museum provided a wealth of information is stating visitants the dangers of terrorist act, remain off from terrorist act, against terrorist act and peace – loving, has a strong function in instruction.
There is another ground for people to understand the existent terrorist act onslaughts in the museum that is museum cooperation with StoryCorps to enter the terrorist onslaughts of 26/02/1993 and 11/09/2001, which include the narrations from subsisters, deliverance workers, informants, service suppliers and other people impacted by these events, hence the museum tries to reconstruct the historical truth ( 9/11 Memorial Museum web site ) . Rogers and Soyka ( 2004 ) suggest through an interview, that a subsister ‘s description, entering and voices from the scene, and images of the scene, are the best ways to demo a true image of 9/11. Based on these the Land Zero and 9/11 Memorial Museum tells the existent history which expands scope of educational activities. Above mentioned which non merely shows instruction map of the 9/11 Memorial Museum, but besides expression the societal map, that is reconstruct the true history to people.Through instruction, they hope to advertise the injuriousness of terrorist act. The other major significance of the Ground Zero and 9/11 Memorial Museum is tell people how awful terrorist act is and how human will ever oppose terrorist act ( Espiritu and Moore 2008 ) . Based on the voice of subsisters which is on exhibition in 9/11Memorial Museum, reveals the apprehension, dismay, weakness, hopelessness and hurting when the onslaughts happened ( Miller 2011 ) .
Land Zero is reconstructing on the site of the World Trade Center, and when people pass the site, they can see the ruins, which shows the destructive consequence of terrorist act. Meanwhile, the images in the 9/11 Memorial Museum show the whole history of 9/11 and base on balls 9/11, it tells visitants the true ugly characteristics of terrorist act and how beautiful peace is, and the visitant will be shocked through these images ( Bohland 2004 ) . To see the assorted of all sorts of images, and hear the voices in the 9/11 Memorial Museum, every bit good as the ruins of the World Trade Center, both show people the danger, destructive and awful side of terrorist act.In add-on, apart from except the above subdivision, one of the major significance of Ground Zero and 9/11 Memorial Museum is to supply a locale for people around the universe to retrieve the 9/11, every bit good as to mark the people killed in this terrorist act onslaught. After 9/11 in 2001, many visitants that go to the World Trade Center site have visited to sorrow over the deceases. Particularly in 9/11 2011, the ten old ages of 9/11 terrorist act onslaughts, have seem the American people hold remark that memorial activities in the World Trade Center site. BBC News ( 2011 ) on that twenty-four hours many people went into the World Trade Center in New York, the Pentagon and Pennsylvania to honor the victims. On September 10, former US president George – W – Bush laid a garland to honor the victims and on September 8, there were two visible radiations piercing the skyline from the World Trade Center site to honor the ten percent day of remembrance after the terrorist act onslaughts.
The 9/11 Memorial Museum was opened on that twenty-four hours ( 9/11 Memorial Museum web site and NY1 intelligence, 2011 ) . The chief 9/11 Memorial Museum chose to open on the 10th day of remembrance to honor 9/11 onslaught. That twenty-four hours, it opened for victims ‘ household and was opened to the populace on 12/09/2011. Because many people go to Ground Zero to honor victims, in order to cut down the traffic, every bit good as non to impact building work about Ground Zero, therefore the authorities built the 9/11 Memorial Museum. Land Zero and the 9/11 Memorial Museum are Centres of the people to retrieve the 9/11 terrorist onslaughts events.
Another significance is the mark for the war on terrorist act, as mentioned in the literature reappraisal.
After the 9/11 terrorist onslaughts, the American authorities published policies against terrorist, and the World Trade Center was seen as the Centre of the terrorist onslaughts, therefore the new building on the site of the World Trade Center has become one of the of import symbol of the U.S. authorities anti – terrorist act ( Melnick 2009 ) .Education, reconstruct true history, shows terrible of terrorist act and mark of war on terrorist act are major meanings related to these two sites.
Land Zero and the 9/11 Memorial Museum play a really of import function on the battle against terrorist act, and full of societal map ( instruction people, restore history ) and service map ( provide the images, pictures, voice to people and supply topographic points for people to retrieve )Based on the meanings and the shadiness of dark touristry mentioned in the literature reappraisal, in the following subdivision the writer will utilize the tabular array 1 to analysis the shadiness of the Ground Zero and the 9/11 Memorial Museum.
4.2-2 Shade of the Ground Zero and 9/11 Memorial Museum
Refer to literature reappraisal, Miles ( 2002 ) say writer should understand differentiation between “ sites associated with decease and agony ” , and “ sites of decease and agony ” . Based on this theory, Stone ( 2006 ) give out an illustration Auschwitz – Birkenau is the “ site of decease and agony ” , but the US Holocaust Memorial Museum in Washington DC is belong to “ sites associated with decease and agony ” . Because the Auschwitz – Birkenau is the direct topographic point that the Nazi imprison and slaughter the people, nevertheless, the US Holocaust Memorial Museum is a museum to memorial the slaughter, it is a topographic point to memorial the events, therefore the shadiness of the Auschwitz – Birkenau isdarker than the US Holocaust Memorial Museum. In Stone ‘s ( 2006 ) paper, he suggests that,“ aˆ¦recent decease and tragic events that may be transported in unrecorded memory through subsisters or informants are possibly ‘darker ‘ than other events that have descended into the distant yesteryear ”Because of this, those dark events like the Auschwitz – Birkenau and the Ground Zero which can be described as “ darker ” because of them can be proved by the endurance and populating the topographic point could elicit a greater sense of empathy ( Stone, 2006 ) . As the above theories, the writer considered the Land Zero can be classified in “ darker ” and the 9/11 Memorial Museum is lighter than former, could be describe as “ dark ” . In the undermentioned portion, the writer will utilize table to analysis more inside informations to explicate why the Land Zero is belong to “ darker ” and 9/11 Memorial Museum is “ dark ”Analysis through the table 1 from top to bottom, the first 1 is about “ civil orders ” .
As known after 9/11 terrorist act onslaughts events, American authorities execution of a series of anti – terrorist act policies, and the strength is more strong than before the 9/11 events. The chief and official purpose is to kill off al – Al-qa’ida and other terrorist organisations. In 2002, the Bush disposal will be the definition of “ province terrorist act ” as the primary menace in the United States, and replace spiritual terrorist act and defined Iraq and Iran as the chief terrorist act base because who have arms of mass devastation ( CNN U.S. 2002 ) . Followed by March 2003, U.
S. authorities sent troop to Iraq and announces the Iraq was a portion of war on terrorist act, it opened the preliminary of the war on terrorist act, and in April 2003 the Baghdad the capital of Iraq was fell and the authorities of Saddam Hussein was dissolved. After 9/11 events, former American President Bush, G. W. operation with former President of Pakistan to against the Taliban authorities in Afghanistan ( USA Today News, 2006 ) . In 2005, American authorities to amend the anti – terrorist act policy, and requalification terrorist act objects, from original individual Al – Al-qa’ida expanded to more than 20 administrations ( Argomaniz, 2010 ) .
Meanwhile, American authorities established Homeland Security Department to construct a safer and more powerful construction of the Homeland Security Department ( Department of Homeland Security web site ) . This series of policy alterations is the 9/11 events brought to American authorities, besides caused alterations in authorities policy. Based on table 1, it shows if the site has a higher political influence it will be tendency to darker, therefore Ground Zero as the events centre it should be belong to “ darker ” . However, the 9/11 Memorial Museum as a new edifice to retrieve the people decease in 9/11 it non act upon the civil orders, but why it is besides classified in the “ darker ” or “ dark ” , it can non merely analysis one facet, it will be explain from other component of table 1.The following component will be analysed is education orientation. At the first of this portion the writer already mentioned the meaning of Ground Zero and the 9/11 Memorial Museum, it include full content of instruction.
Based on above information, Ground Zero and the 9/11 Memorial Museum are have high instruction for people, and the 9/11 Memorial Museum besides offer many utile action to demo the educational significance to visitants, and some undertaking in museum could assist the parents to learn their kids, this is besides played a important function in the instruction of following coevals. On this component, Ground Zero and the 9/11 Memorial Museum are have a really strong instruction function, therefore them should be portion of “ darker ” .From history facet, Ground Zero and 9/11 Memorial Museum both are record the history. In the tabular array 1, it say of the sites are tendency to darkest which should be the history centric and preservation of commemorating. As know, Ground Zero is build in the site of the World Trade Center, the new edifice is informant of this history of 9/11 events and 9/11 Memorial Museum collected many images, voices, narratives and pictures about that events, it the best save of that events, shows existent history and besides can reconstruct the truth history for future coevalss. In term of commemorative, the writer already gives out many factors to turn out Ground Zero and the 9/11 Memorial Museum full of memorable. It is deserving adverting that based on the 9/11 Memorial Museum website the intent and mission is better remember and memorial people who decease in 9/11 onslaughts.
Consequently, there is no uncertainty that these two topographic points ‘ chief map is memory. In this respect, they besides tendency to be “ darker ” .There is another side besides can turn out Ground Zero and 9/11 Memorial Museum are pertain to “ darker ” . Based on shadiness of dark touristry, if merchandise include perceived reliable it could be belong to “ darker ” . Although, Ground Zero is constructing in the site of the World Trade Center, the new edifice will retrieve the site, but the face of terrorist onslaughts at this site will non be changed and many memorial activates in here could breed a grade empathy to visitants. The merchandises in 9/11 Memorial Museum are the straight stuffs which related to the terrorist onslaughts, such as images of the scene of terrorist onslaughts, picture recording of the World Trade Center which was attacked. , exposure of victims and people can portion the narrative about 9/11 onslaughts, all of these are let people experience really straight of destructive of 9/11 onslaughts. These merchandises of 9/11 Memorial Museum can do a strong resonance for visitants.
Direct show 9/11 and do visitants experience a existent 9/11 are the characteristic of merchandises in Ground Zero and 9/11 Memorial Museum.In the tabular array 1, it mentioned the location genuineness. In this paper the writer has been mentioned many times that Ground Zero is build in the site of the World Trade Center and the 9/11 Memorial Museum is near by the onslaughts site, in footings of location these two topographic point are really near to terrorist onslaughts.The last 1 is tourism substructure and supply. The substructure is defined as basic installation and physical for an organisation needed for operation or service to fit the map and purpose ( Jeffrey, 2009 ) . After Land Zero physique, it will be use as concern it must include many high degree and complete installations and substructure for people, in the 9/11 Memorial Museum, in order to supply a good service to visitors the museum besides use many high – tech substructure.
Concerned to supple of 9/11 Memorial Museum, the intent is really clear, that is to retrieve the 9/11 terrorist onslaughts, every bit good as the victims. Based on these two facets and table 1, Ground Zero and 9/11 Memorial Museum they are non tendency to “ darker ” . However, see the issued should from different position to analysis and so conclude. Based on analysis from above, in the huge bulk of facets the shadiness of Ground Zero and the 9/11 Memorial Museum are tendency to “ darker ” side, therefore the writer consider Ground Zero and 9/11 Memorial Museum are belong to “ darker ” in the shadiness of dark touristry.
4.2 – 3 Decision
In this subdivision, the writer give out more inside informations about the meaning, shown that Ground Zero and the 9/11 Memorial Museum are full of memorable and historical dark touristry sites. It besides a major symbol of the war on panic. Particularly the 9/11 Memorial Museum, is really suited for school and parents to educate the kids abut the 9/11 onslaughts, and do them cognize how atrocious the terrorist act is, at the same clip is the best topographic point to memorial victims.
Understand the shadiness could assist the writer deepness understand Land Zero and 9/11 Memorial Museum as a many-sided and complex touristry merchandises. Based on Stone ‘s ( 2006 ) point, dark non means “ bad ” , the darker is closer to the existent event. In Stone ( 2006 ) paper says Auschwitz – Birkenau can be described as “ darker ” . In this instance survey, the writer based on elements of table 1 ( the shadiness of dark touristry ) to analysis Ground Zero and 9/11 Memorial Museum form many facet and concluded Ground Zero and 9/11 Memorial Museum are tendency to “ darker ” that is strict and theoretical footing. Understanding of nature of Ground Zero and 9/11 Memorial Museum, enables the writer better analysis the schemes which Ground Zero and 9/11 Memorial Museum they used in operations, and assist the 9/11 Memorial Museum better to accomplish the ends and purpose. In the following portion, the writer will based on these information which mentioned above and through the chief schemes for Ground Zero and 9/11 Memorial Museum from 2001 to 2011 to depth analysis inside informations about schemes of Ground Zero and 9/11 Memorial Museum.
4.3 Schemes of Ground Zero and 9/11 Memorial Museum
3 – 1 Differentiation scheme
In this subdivision, the writer will analysis the schemes of Ground Zero and 9/11 Memorial Museum. In the tabular array 2, the writer summarized the chief schemes which used during 2001 to 2011, from the tabular array it shows the chief schemes of these two topographic points is rebuild and construct a new edifice to memory which decided by American and New York authorities. In 2001, after 9/11 onslaughts, American authorities decided to reconstruct the World Trade Center at the site and rapidly began to implement this program, in same twelvemonth announced the Lower Manhattan Development Corporation ( LMDC ) as the official committee. From this, American authorities officially began the Reconstruction of the World Trade Center. Meanwhile, in the same twelvemonth, after 9/11 onslaughts American authorities published some anti – terrorist policies, this mean America declared war on panic, and reconstruct the World Trade Center is besides a contemplation of the war on terrorist act. The scheme of rebuild the World Trade Center is non merely to memory the 9/11 onslaughts, to resuscitate the assurance of Americans, it is besides a contemplation of terrorist act by the American authorities ( Melnick, 2010 ) . During these ten old ages, the other chief building scheme is build the 9/11 Memorial Museum. In 2004 the official committee Lower Manhattan Development Corporation determinations design the museum and in 2005 design the mission of museum.
Determine of mission is besides determine the characteristically of the 9/11 Memorial Museum. Based on the 9/11 Memorial Museum website the museum has two chief mission. The first is remembered and honour the victims by terrorists in the horrific onslaughts of February 26, 1993 and September 11, 2001 and this is a really of import chief mission of the 9/11 Memorial Museum.
The 2nd is regard this topographic point made sacred through tragic loss. Based on the mission, it caused the writer chose distinction and cost leading schemes to develop the 9/11 Memorial Museum which was mentioned in the literature reappraisal. In September 11, 2011, the 10 day of remembrance of 9/11 the 9/11 Memorial Museum was opened for victims ‘ households and September 12, 2011 opened for public for memorial and the museum will open in 2013 ( Cohen, 2012 ) .These schemes are specific actions of American and New York authorities, the writer considered that need more professional scheme model to analysis the Land Zero and the 9/11 Memorial Museum and give out more inside informations. Because Land Zero will be as a concern centre in the hereafter ( Watts, 2009 ) and the memorial map is a portion of it, therefore in this subdivision the writer will pay mo