The last important factor is top management support and commitment.It is one of the most important factors because implementing an ERP system isnot as simple as just changing a software program. An ERP system reposition andreengineer the organization to move from a functional focus to a business processfocus.
Top management must understand and be aware about the importance ofimplementing an ERP system and the benefits which the system will contribute tothe organization. They must be involved in every step of the ERP implementationand committed to provide all valuable resources. Also, they provide thedirection, set up realistic goals and objectives and share the importance ofimplementing the ERP system throughout the entire organization. Also, theinvolvement of top management ensures and increases the commitment from allemployees. Furthermore, interventions from top management to solve anyconflicts and encourage and motivate the corporation between different groupsand individual to fascinate the implementation of the ERP system.
On the otherhand, the lack of top management support and commitment is the major cause ofthe failure of implementing an ERP system because when the responsibility ofimplementing the ERP system is under the IT departments then this project isconsidered as an IT project. This means only the employees in the IT departmentknow the importance of this system and other employees in other departmentswill resist to any changes since they don’t know the importance of implementingan ERP system. Thus, the reasons and objectives of implementing an ERP systemshould first come from top management and then, they need to collaborate andwork with the IT specialists to have a successful ERP implementation. The second important factor is technological infrastructure in which the management must ensurethat ERP package matches the current hardware platform, databases and theoperating system and other IT factors. The reason behind that is that the ERPimplementation involves transition from the legacy system to an integrated ITand common business process so they need to ensure the compatibility of thecurrent IT components with the new system .IT experts play a key role in thesuccessful implementation of the ERP.
First, they need to ensure that thehardware is adjustable and programmable to respond to the changes that isenforced by the ERP. Usually, the ERP vendor recommend what hardware orhardware configuration is needed to support the ERP system. Second, thesoftware must be able to provide all the existing data in the organization tothe ERP system. These two factors, hardware and software, are very important todecrease the risk. Also, the selection of the right operating system that isable to support the ERP and provide data integrity and data exchange securityis another IT factor that is critical to the success of the ERP.
Moreover, ITexperts need to provide fast and secure access to the LAN, WAN and the Internetsince most of the transactions is available in real time. Ensuring the adequacyof the IT infrastructure can be time consuming and expensive, however, it isthe basic foundation of successful implementation of the ERP. First, project management whichincludes the processes, methods, knowledge, skills and experience required tothe achievement of the desired objectives. This can be achieved by using aformal project management structure (PMS) such as the project management bodyof knowledge (PMBOK) which composes of five phases in project management.
Thefive phases are project initiation, planning, execution, controlling andclosing, and it includes nine knowledge areas such as project integrationmanagement, project scope management, project time management, project costmanagement, project quality management, project human resources management, projectcommunication management, project risk management and project procurementmanagement. In implementing an ERP system, the importance and the role ofproject management is to discover and identify the need for a change in theorganization, providing the needed resources and ensuring that the ERP systemwill meet the business strategy. The ERP project manager plays a critical rolein successful implementation of the system. Thus, the project manager must havea full understanding about business knowledge and technical knowledge. Also,the project manager must understand the business process as well as the impactof the ERP system on the business. Project manager role is to act as the leaderand communicates the goals and objectives, managesthe process to ensure that all the required resources and activities aredelivered within the scope and budget. Furthermore, they need to manage the expectationsof managers and end-users and promote and share the project’s benefitsthroughout the entire organization. In addition, identifying the project scopeto prevent the never-ending project is very important for the success of ERPimplementation that is way the project manager works with other departmentmanagers to specify and clearly identify the number of systems that areimplemented, involvement of business units and the necessary modification ofbusiness processes to ensure the project success.
It is also important tospecify project milestones with a clear and realistic delivery dates and themanagement of all arising issues and conflicts.First of all, the critical success factors for enterprise resource planningimplementation success research paper is aimed to describe the critical successfactors for the successful implementation of the ERP (enterprise resourceplanning) system in Cihan university. First, it defines the critical successfactors as all the needed and essential elements to implement a successfulenterprise resource planning system.
These factors are commitment and supportof top management which identify and provide the direction to implement the ERPsystem and share the role and value of the ERP system throughout the wholeorganization. Second factor is project management which represents the requiredskills and knowledge for schedule building and monitoring activities to ensurethe achievement of the desired objectives. The next factor is user training andeducation.
It involves teaching and training the users of the system about theconcepts and the features of the system. Another factor is business plan andvision. Every organization must have a clear business plan and vision as wellas identifying the goals and objectives before implementing the ERP system.These goals can be tracked and measured during the implementation cycle to meettop management expectations. Next factor is technological infrastructure.Management needs to choose the IT infrastructure, hardware and networking thatenable the complex ERP system to work efficiently and effectively.
Anotherfactor is departments (stakeholder) participation which requires differentusers, consultants and ERP vendors to work together to facilitate theimplementation phase. Another factor is the change management which identifiesthe need for changes that will encourage top management and stakeholders tosupport the implementation of the ERP systems and manage the structural changesthat involves people, organization and cultural changes. The last factoridentified in this paper is communication which ensures implementing asuccessful ERP system. Furthermore, this study also illustrates the three mostimportant success factors which are project management, technologicalinfrastructure and top management support and commitment.