The of Iran. It is a natural ventilation

The original style of urban housing in all three towns used to be mainly courtyard housing. The courtyard planning performs a number of functions. Most important being its role of bringing everyone together. The traditional courtyard housing has structural monumentality and ethical identity, as well as functionality. The house represents a family as one.  It is a centre point. There is a frequent flow of people in and out of rooms around the courtyard. The aesthetic facades are isolated from neighbours. There is an emphasis on the principal entrance and all opening to the street are eliminated. The exterior of the house does not float itself at all, contrary to contemporary architecture. The street life does not penetrate the living space, as the public and private worlds are separated. This feature gives the house architectural identity. In eastern cultures sense of family, and privacy is very important and it has manifested itself in certain ways in eastern architecture. One example of this is the traditional planning of houses. Traditionally courtyards are placed surrounded by houses inhabited by the same family or close family members.  “This basic plan remains essentially the same regardless of the size of the overall structure, so that the largest palaces simply had larger rooms, not more of them.”   House is usually bounded either by neighbouring dwellings or by narrow streets. Access could be circuitous and, for reasons of privacy, openings on to the external spaces were avoided. The house was therefore entirely inward-looking and the courtyard became a small garden, which, with its pool, provided a cool space in the spring and summer.  Provinces which are located in hot climates of Iran are known for having ‘wind towers’, also known as ‘badgir’. It is a key structural element in traditional architecture of Iran. It is a natural ventilation technique, which encourages wind circulation through the house. “Wind tower shows the harmony of human built environment with nature. Traditional building techniques were normally well adapted to the climate. However, the modern way of life and imported western technologies have often replaced the established traditions in the design of the buildings. It conserves energy and functions on the basis of sustainability principles.” 


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