The Study of Augmented Reality:From Gamers to the PublicAsad Mahmood Introduction: Have you ever wanted to play a game inside your home? Well i’m not talking about sitting in front of the tv all day long staring at a 2D game, i’m talking about playing with using an Augmented Reality system. Augmented Reality, or more commonly known as AR, is a technology that is like no other. It allows one to still be in one’s environment such as an ordinary living room, bedroom, or anywhere else really, and see , fantastical elements appear in your very normal surroundings creating a whole new level of involvement which could never be achieved through 2D gaming. The use of AR, although primary for gaming as of now, is spreading it wings into many more areas to be a beneficial tool for us all. Many of the concepts, uses, and misconceptions/preconceptions, and future of AR will be discussed throughout this literary review. The use of Augmented Reality, or AR will revolutionize the world for gamers, but is also steadily extending to the general public.
The technology of AR is getting more practical uses in many different parts of study, such as education, mechanics and interactive labs, and possibly makingus call into question some ethical choices we’ve previously justified. Overall AR is heading in a direction where everyone will be able to incorporate the technology into some part of their life. History of Augmented RealityThe first physical model of a a world with computer-generated aspects onto it occured in the 1960s. Ivan Sutherland is the one one would lay the foundation for what will eventually become AR and VR, and he desired what he had called, ” the ultimate display.” Sutherland finished making the first head-mounted display in 1968. The technology in the headset already had head tracking and see-through capabilities.Interestingly, it was had so much weight that it had the hung from the ceiling. Sutherland can be seen using this technology in the figure to the right.
The new computer technologies that’d emerged in the 1980s and the 1990s were essential to make AR the separate and individual field of research it is now. In 1992, the term “augmented reality” came about and many key technologies and their advancements came in the following years.KARMA which incorporated knowledge based AR and was capable of automatically choosing the correct sequences for repair and maintenance based on the surrounding area. KARMA allowed a user to be able to see instructions on maintenance, as seen on the two left images, but it was for a limited amount of items. The Chameleon was the first handheld device which knew how to detect the space around it. The Chameleon was capable of showing contextual information as the wearer moved around. Steve Mann at MIT created a “media mediator” which was a computer the size of a waist bag and it enabled a person to augment, modify, or curtail visual reality. Steve Mann is the person who has established the academic field of wearable computing which had intersected with many aspects of AR.
Rekimoto and Nagao, in 1995 had created the first “true” handheld augmented reality display. Although it was still restricted by the fact that it was still tethered, their NaviCam technology was attached to a workstation. The workstation was necessary because a single computer would not have been able to keep up with the program intensity. This technology could detect color coded markers in a camera image from the video feed of the forward facing camera. Also from the color coded images, it could display information.The first collaborative AR system came out in 1996. This system allowed multiple people to see the same augmented objects in the same shared space. Unlike in collaborative VR, people are able to see each other and hear each other creating a minimally obstructive way.
One of main applications was a mathematics course in which high school students tested a version of AR shown on the right. The first outdoor AR system was developed in 1997 at Columbia University. Called, The Touring Machine, it allowed people to have a wearable GPS system. It required various thing for input, such as tablet computers and sensors. THe whole setup and what is seen by the user are shown on the left.
Cellular phones and processing power of mobiles have started to evolve rapidly past 2000. In 2004, a multiplayer AR game about trains for smartphones was made, a picture of the game is on the right. How AR Devices WorkOne note to understand before learning about this technology is its objective; display computer generated images into the physical world, only seen by the user.
AR overlays projected images on top of a pair of glasses, which layer virtual items and images over the real world environment of the wearer. Most AR devices are self-contained, simply put it means that they are free from being tethered to a computer or require cables to work, unlike Virtual Reality headsets.Augmented realities are able to be displayed onto a spectrum of displays, ranging from screens and monitors all the way to handheld devices and glasses. Like what Sutherland had once created, head-up displays are now being improved for beyond what could have been imagined. Modern head-up displays or HUDs put augmented reality directly onto the wearers face, usually in the form of glasses. In the future the technology shall require less physical components and can be miniaturized in the form of wearable AR contact lenses.Key Parts of an AR DeviceReflection: An essential part of AR devices are the mirrors that are contained within them.
The basic function of the mirrors is to assist out eyes in viewing the augmented images. The complexity of the arrangements and the technologies vary immensely at the moment. Simple versions contain only double-sided mirrors where one side reflects light coming into the camera and the other reflects light from a side mounted display to the eye of the wearer. Some of the other displays tend to contain more intricate systems like having multiple curved mirrors. Technologies like the Hololens from Microsoft which are at the forefront of researching and standardizing AR have moved to the use of see through holographic mechanics. Sensors and Cameras: The sensors and cameras on the exterior of the AR device are there to collect visual data and to collect the wearers movements and give send them to be processed and interpreted.
The basic function of these is to work together and to render a digital model. New technologies, such as the Microsoft Hololens now incorporate features called “depth sensing” which allows for what Microsoft calls “environental understanding cameras.” Processing Data: In a sense, AR devices are very small supercomputers and because of the the high level tasks they need to perform, they require a massive amount of processing power as well. The components similar to smartphones which have everything incorporated onto the CPU, have components such as GPUs, flash memory, RAM, Bluetooth and Wireless NIC microchip, GPS, now accelerometers and gyroscopes are being added for even more realistic and mesmerizing experiences. Projection: The projector basically turns any surface into an interactive space.
This will eventually make the use of devices will become obsolete because they offer limited space to work with, while projection based AR can take advantage of many environments.In the eyes of the general public, it is very uncommon for a person to discuss any products relating to augmented reality. The popularity of AR has been rising over the past couple years but it is still low. It is important to mention that a technology similar to AR, virtual reality, is definitely on the rise and although it is centered around gamers, its popularity with everyone is growing. For this argument, only opinions of AR will be discussed. AR itself does not have much attention, and people who have seen its possibilities praise it, it is not the opinion of the majority.
There is a duality that people see the technology as, they see it as a crude and unexplored fad that was interesting for a little time, and at the same time they see it as an unattainable cutting-edge piece of tech. The duality is actually correct in how it splits AR, there is a very unrefined technology and then a very expensive version which many people can not afford. There are primitive applications for phones, and since people use their phones many times more in their day, it is easy to understand the skewed popularity that exist.
On smartphones the most a person can see available are apps which allow one to make a simple special effect such as cloud appear over a printed piece of paper with their specialized QR code. Any device or software which shows the cutting edge or even mediocre AR is specialized and the cost of it is very expensive.A solution to the little popularity and knowledge of the possibilities of AR can be solved through many methods but the one discussed here will follow a pattern of creating simple, enticing applications to increase people’s craving for more.
Companies should make apps highlighting the uses and possibilities of AR, no matter their simplicity. To entice people and build up “hype” there will be more demand, leading to more supply, eventually more investments into the field, and finally it will cheapen the cost of and improve the technology within the field of AR greatly. The use of augmented reality is limited due to the use of VR. Virtual reality has been on the rise and since it creates a sense of complete immersion it has won the opinion of the public and especially the gamers. This focus on VR has overshadowed the knowledge and exposure of people to AR.
Since 2015 when Microsoft had unveiled their new Hololens, and even more in 2016 when the mobile game Pokémon Go, the true possibilities and enginuity of AR had been shown to the people. This has created an increase in the amount of anticipation for more innovations that are to be had using this technology. There have been multiple types of real world uses that were created to satiate the need to explore this realm of technology.IIIProblems with AR There are three problems augmented reality faces until it has mass adoption into our world. The three issues are hardware availability, content, public exposure.
The problem that resides isn’t the hardware itself but the scarcity of it. The true AR technologies, the few that actually have been released, are either extremely expensive or they still have yet to announce shipment dates. The second issue that inhibits the growth of AR is the content. A reasonable analogy to draw between this would be, buying a new IPhone and having no apps available.
The hardware capabilities of the new devices is excellent, but with the content for consumers to enjoy it is but an empty tool. An important thing to note is that large companies are doing their best to such as Microsoft are doing their best to draw in developers to create content for consumers to enjoy. The third challenge that AR is facing is consumer exposure. Large factors such as the hardware price and sparse amount of content as said above affect consumers exposure to AR. People are not exposed to the uses of AR in their lives or they are not consciously aware of it, so they can not see the incredible amount of real world applications it can have.
To help these problems of exposure, an education and understanding of AR can become more accessible to all.Quick history with VR Virtual reality just like augmented reality has been around for decades, and the first headset emerging in the 1960s. The first motion tracking HMD or head-mounted display was dubbed the “Headsight.
” Later the “Sword of Damocles” was created, which was the device created by Sutherland in the beginning of this essay. The 1990s had large advancements in electronic engineering, computers and networking, creating the perfect environment for VR to grow. After the dawn of the 21st century there was a fading of enthusiasm for VR as there were challenges concerning the technology. The following is an excerpt connecting the resurgence in the interest and funding for VR and the Oculus Rift, “This had cause funding and innovation to slow and nearly dissipate completely. Palmer Luckey (above), who is undoubtedly dubbed the father of contemporary VR thanks to his Oculus Rift, which rose from a Kickstarter campaign to be purchased by Facebook for $2 billion. Oculus Rift marked the dawn of consumer-era VR.” Describe the differences between AR and MRThe difference between augmented reality and MR or mixed reality is a fine one.
AR is the layering of digital images onto a real world setting, while MR is the same thing but the digital image can be interacted with. Compare Them IV. Where we go from nowWe must focus much research and funding to further this area because it has immense benefits to overall efficiency which can’t be achieved by other technologies.Microsoft’s new technology using ARB. Real World Applications of ARC. How it will help the general publicV. How will we improve the world with it, or what will be improvedWe can have an enormous amount of possible real world applications regarding AR.
We can display names of points of interest to people, it can instruct a person on how to fix their car by show the parts and the actions that must be done to them. As reality technologies continue to advance, augmented reality devices will gradually require less hardware and start being applied to things like contact lenses and virtual retinal displays. This technology can also be applied to medical practice to eradicate to need for cadavers. It could call into question the need of cadavers, plus possibly reignite an argument about the ethics of dissection. There are countless things that will improve and be re evaluated by the mass adoption of AR.ConclusionIntroductionA.Background B.
The use of Augmented Reality, or AR will revolutionize the world for gamers, but is also steadily extending to the general public.II. The history and creation of AR, as well as where it is currently in the eyes of the public.
Mention how that is different than how much it has actually progressed.History/Creation i. The part and components ii. The software it ran on How popular it is currently.The difference between what people see AR as, and how that is different than how much it has progress. i. Provide a reason as to why that could beii. a fadiii.
we have unrealistic expectations of what it should be but also see it as a crude type of technology. It hasn’t been developed enough III. AR vs.
VRProblems with ARQuick history with VRCompare them IV. Where we go from nowMicrosoft’s new technology using ARB. Real World Applications of ARC. How it will help the general publicV. How will we improve the world with it, or what will be improvedConclusion