Question 1: The writer appears to hold had troubles enrolling interviewees ( see particularly p.
s102 ) . Why, for illustration, might an organisation withdraw “from the survey claiming restructuring was in progress” ? ( p.102 ) .
From Kamenou ‘s paper, it can be seen that few organisations ( two ) are willing to give Kamenou their permission to interview their staff. Such phenomenon happens due to two factors: organisation and employees. Initially, in footings of the organisation, it acts like “gatekeeper who provides and facilitates entree for the researcher” ( Okumusa, Altinay and Roper 2007 ) .
Once the research worker is free to near its staff to transport out the interview, this action can take to the hazard to organisation because “inside” or “first-person” histories can supply a existent image of an organisation ‘s oddity and muss ( Bryman 1988 ) . Therefore, the informations aggregation which is good to researcher may be non favorable to company as Gary Alan Fine claimed that “the production of good things might non be pretty” ( 1993 ) . If the information aggregation is unbeneficial to company, it will act upon their image every bit good as their operation.
Clearly, non merely incurring cost of clip, resources and inconvenient affairs but the company besides bears the hazard of bad consequences. By the same item, many organisations are loath to give positive respond to Kamenou ‘s invitation. However, if the information aggregation is helpful to the organisation, the company evidently wants the study from the research worker to be public to society to better its image and repute. It is besides the instance of two companies which agree to take portion in Kamenou ‘s research: one is a big retail organisation and one is a community wellness trust belonging to Retailer and Public sectors.
As being said above, it is non easy for an organisation to allow a research worker entree. For that ground, entree is offered merely if the research worker agrees to analyze some facet of the subject and produces a study for the gatekeeper ‘s usage ( Lee 1993 ) . Both of sectors are interested in the populace so they may concentrate on heightening their prestigiousness by turn outing their advocated committedness to equality and as “leaders in diversity” through the research. In my sentiment, given an premise that these organisation even fancy to implement a societal research by themselves but they can non make this because of cost or the staff who are non unfastened if they are interviewed by the individual besides in the same company. Hence, Kamenou ‘s research is a fantastic opportunity for them to accomplish their intent without excessively much clip and cost consuming by utilizing her study.Not merely organisations, Kamenou ‘s troubles besides come from the staff. Her focussed survey is cultural minority adult females ‘s experiences of equilibrating their work and personal life so she needs to enroll the adult females from cultural minority to interview them.
When they agree to take part in Kamenou ‘s research, we do non cognize whether they are voluntary or required by their company. Therefore, it is hard to believe that they will be unfastened to reply her inquiry. In add-on, replying Kamenou ‘s research inquiries means that they will expose their cultural minority ‘s usage or even jobs. Such action is non normally allowed in traditional cultural minority community and threatens to damage their relationship with their community. Furthermore, being a minority adult females, they have to “act white” to “fit in” Western companies ‘ civilization and hence, the reply they give in Kamenou ‘s research can destruct the image which they try to make. Taking the finance organisation as an illustration, it is a well-known fact that all adult females in fiscal country which is normally considered adult male ‘s universe do non hold another pick except for being “tough” to meet challenges in their work. As a consequence, it is disadvantageous for them to uncover their inactive ego.
Consequently, in my sentiment, to avoid such state of affairs, the finance company withdrew from Kamenou ‘s research.
Question2: Would you anticipate differences between the people in organisations where formal entree had been granted and the “independent group..
. identified through personal networking” ? ( p.s102 ) If so, what might these differences be?
In Kamenou ‘s survey research, non merely enrolling interviewees from staff in organisations, she besides adds in another “independent” group of participants. Her motive can be explained through Rubin and Rubin ( 1995 ) ‘s four cardinal countries around enlisting: ab initio happening a knowing source, acquiring a scope of positions, proving emerging subjects with new interviewees, and taking interviewees to widen consequences. By adding “independent” group, Kamenou expects to have drawn-out replies or as she claims in her paper “add profusion to the data” . It should be noted that Kamenou has the first group of staff from organisation through formal entree and this entree can go an obstruction in communicating between interviewer and interviewee. Formal entree refers to accomplishing an understanding between the organisation and the research worker on specific footings including what, when, and how empirical informations are collected and what might be the return ( Laurila, 1997 ) .
On this history, evidently interviewee ‘s organisations know about the research and denominate them as portion of the undertaking. Hence, they are afraid that if they give unfavourable information about company, it will be reported to their director by the research worker. Such pattern can take to their unwilling co-operation and limited replies in the interview. However, formal entree can besides do an opposite scenario. To many people interview is a rare opportunity for them to speak about themselves and their state of affairs to an attentive hearer. However, this besides means that the informations produced have to be seen as a public presentation ( Goffman, 1956-1959 ) , as a piece of discourse work ( Potter and Wetherell, 1987 ) on the portion of the interviewee.
The interviewee will be led to believe about something they may hold non thought approximately before to organize positions on it and to give those positions in a manner which will ever pay attending to the relationship they wish to make with the interviewer every bit good as the content of what they wish to state ( Wortham, 1999 ) . Therefore, some employees can see this interview as a opportunity for them to advance themselves through research worker ‘s study to direction. In effect, information provided by them is no longer dependable and nonsubjective but to function for their purpose.However, the independent group compensates these weak points of the first group. First of all, persons of independent group were indentified through “personal networking” , non formal entree. As being mentioned above, taking interviewees to widen consequences is one of enlisting ‘s cardinal countries. In order to make that, research worker has to follow many trails, frequently trusting ab initio on friends and co-workers and so on contacts given by other interviewees ( Seale et Al 2007 ) . In my sentiment, when utilizing the term of “personal networking” , Kamenou must be intend the same idea like Seale et Al particularly contacts given by interviewees.
In Kamenou ‘s research, such contacts are really of import because it introduces her to the other members in different cultural minority. Without contacts, it is hard for her to ask for them to take portion in her survey for cultural minority people are non normally unfastened to speak with unusual individual about their community. By utilizing “personal networking” , Kamenou can acquire a scope of positions on the subject because those interviewees can bring forth “radically different” or contrasting talk without being capable to organisation.
Question 3: From reading the paper, what do we cognize about the writer? How might the individuality of the writer have made a difference to the research?
May ( 2001 ) claimed that when making a research, research worker should be cognizant of the ways in which their ain lifes besides play a important portion of the research procedure.
Seale et Al ( 2007 ) besides highlight that “It is both the experiences of the researched and research workers which are important” . However, it is noted that in Kamenou ‘s paper she provides readers some basic autobiographical item and merely about her academic calling. The inquiry is why she did this and what is the consequence if we know about her individuality.It is common fact that through a life, we can acquire an overall thought about a individual ‘s life along with his or her societal place. The importance of life is besides emphasized by Seale et Al ( 2007 ) “biographies are progressively considered and examined as a societal concept of societal world in themselves” . In Kamenou ‘s instance, I think Kamenou do non desire us cognize about her visual aspect every bit good as her ethnicity.
Even in her paper, we can happen few hint of reflexiveness. Anderson ( 2009 ) points out that reflexiveness entails the research worker being cognizant of his consequence on the procedure. As a consequence, it seems to be that Kamenou tries to curtail any impact caused by her on her research ‘s topics and appears impersonal. Hence, she gives readers an nonsubjective image of cultural minority adult females ‘s work-life balance. However, if the readers can cognize her ethnicity, I think it will be more helpful. If she belongs to cultural minority adult females, it makes readers believe more in the fact in her research or anticipate experience from her. If she is white adult female, I still find helpful by listening her point of position as a white female about the cultural minority adult females who have different civilization from her.Compared with Kamenou, we can happen the grounds of reflexiveness in Russell ‘s article.
By utilizing this method, she involves with her participants so she besides experience the same like them. For this ground, her paper provides readers the richest penetration into the research subjects. On the other manus, Kamenou keeps a impersonal attitude and presents how to carry on the research and her decisions. Therefore, her paper will give the most insight into the procedures of qualitative research.
The paper of Brown, Humphreys and Gurney
Question 1: In add-on to formal interviews and observations the writers province that they besides used “photographs.
.. Internet documents, Internal policy studies, selling booklets and newspaper reports” claiming that these “contributed to our apprehension of the organization” ( p.315 ) . In what ways would this kind of documental stuff potentially enrich the survey?
Lynch ( 1985 ) points out that “documents are integrally a portion of the work of making science” .
Urry ( 1990 ) besides maintains that touristry research should affect the scrutiny of texts, non merely written texts but besides maps, landscapes, pictures, movies, townscapes, Television programmes, booklets, and so on… In Laskarina paper, we can recognize that the research workers besides use many sorts of documental stuff and it can be said that the success of their study is partially contributed by the diversified paperss.First of all, by company ‘s booklets, the research workers can hold a expression at its history or background which is the first but of import measure to understand an organisation. Brochures besides help research workers know about organisation ‘s scheme or their responsibility to society. In Laskarina paper, by booklets along with exposure, the research workers receive a elaborate image about Laskarina ‘s background and particularly its espoused purpose “provide a better vacation to the existent Greece for clients who preferred to be treated as travellers instead than box tourists” . The aim of an organisation will find how it will be operated and its operation besides contributes to make its individuality.
Therefore, from Laskarina ‘s purpose, the research workers can anticipate a morality facet of its individuality such as employees in Laskarina need to vouch a good vacation matching to their client ‘s payment. Then, they can inquire staff or direct them to this facet to happen down more about this side of organisation or discover differences in histories of the organisation between the interviews and public information in booklet. Interestingly, organisation ‘s scheme establishes its operation but internal policy is the one maintaining it smooth. When an internal policy is applied, all staff in company have to follow and bit by bit the internal policy becomes organisation ‘s individuality.
By reading it, the research workers can cognize more about company ‘s individuality and get down to organize a clear position about it or even the company ‘s job which internal policy attempts to turn to so they can add it in the interviews to widen their apprehension about this. Like “Reps Bible” , the internal policy of Laskarina, it underlines non lone staff ‘s duties but the necessity to look indifferent and unity that is another grounds for research workers to expect a normative individuality of company.Beside booklets and internal policies, cyberspace and newspaper studies besides play an of import portion in assisting research workers understand company ‘s individuality. The ground is that non all information in booklets is existent because its chief intent is publicizing and pulling clients to company. As a consequence, sometimes they are modified before being in public.
Simultaneously, it is non ever easy to entree all internal policies of company. Therefore, newspaper studies and cyberspace are convenient beginnings for research workers to happen down about organisation ‘s individuality. Newspaper studies will give research workers a position of what the public thinks about company based on its individuality. For case, if Laskarina truly has morality facet in its individuality, the newspaper study will give information about how the public regard this company. Furthermore, cyberspace provides researcher the manner to listen the outside people ‘s sentiment alternatively of traditional beginnings, as Peter ( 1998 ) states that:As a research worker, one you have discovered how to turn up information quickly, you may even get down to depend on the Web salvaging yourself clip that might otherwise hold been spent trawling through more traditional beginnings.
In instance of Laskarina company, the research workers can utilize clients ‘ remarks on cyberspace about the journeys operated by Laskarina to corroborate that whether the booklet ‘s information is true. To sum up, by diversified paperss, the research workers can roll up cherished information for their intent and interview execution. However, we should observe that excessively many documental stuffs will do jobs when there is no consistence amongst them, taking trouble in analyzing ; and a sensitive issue: cost-efficiency.
Question 2: The informations analysis finally produced “three coherent individuality narratives” ( p. 315 ) . In what ways do the three narrations capture – limit- what can be said approximately Laskarina as an organisation?
Hinchman ( 1997 ) presents us a definition of narrative:Narratives ( narratives ) in the human scientific disciplines should be defined provisionally as discourses with a clear consecutive order that connect events in a meaningful manner for a definite audience and therefore offer penetrations about the universe and/ or people ‘s experiences of it.By executing narrations we can make new possibilities for individualities and actions ( Mishler 1986, Bruner 1990 ) . In Laskarina paper, based on the statement that “the individualities of organisations are constituted by the multiple, changing, .
.. , but frequently viing narrations centered on them” , the research workers bit by bit indentify collected informations into three coherent individuality narratives including: “utilitarian” ( economic-focused ) , “normative” ( morality-focused ) , “hedonic” ( pleasure-focused ) . This means these individualities are considered to stand for the most dominated individualities in Laskarina company, sketching company ‘s image. In another manner, all organisation ‘s activities or staff ‘s idea are circled around these individualities.
For illustration, as a concern, Laskarina ‘s intent is to do net income ( useful ) and this mark is featured in internal policy and ever maintain in head of staff. In the interview, the reserve director is asked about Laskara ‘s verdancy policy but in the terminal this policy is still related to gaining turnover. However, in Laskarina, it should be taken into history that the proprietors influence significantly of the dominant individuality narrations. Consequently, sometimes the staff ‘s narratives are no longer their self-narratives, they merely retell a narrative about the proprietor ‘s narrative or in other words the replies become meta-narrative.In add-on, another affair is that although these outstanding individualities are shown visibly through all the informations, research worker can still construe in different ways to happen the other individualities. In Laskarina ‘s instance, the writers besides realize that in gathered informations, “not all narratives all every bit compelling, and many narrations of an organisation ‘s individuality will turn out transient” and there is being of unresolved voice.
Although the transient individuality and unresolved voice are non dominated organisation ‘s individuality, the research workers should be cognizant of them because they complete the position of company individuality. They are non affected by powerful subscribers of company so it may uncover a dark side of organisation ‘s individuality. For illustration, through collected informations in Laskarina, one of the most outstanding individuality is narrative individuality but some staff wonder about whether it is exaggerated. This implies about the dissension of lending to individualities capturing Laskarina as an organisation.
Question 3: What are the possible ethical quandary involved in this sort of research?
Ethical motives is normally understood as a construct refering with the effort to explicate codifications and rules of moral behaviour ( May 2003 ) .
However, in narrative research context, the term “ethical” illustrates the affairs environing the relationship between the research worker and the research subjects or participants, and the consequence of the research procedure on those persons straight associating to the research ( Elliott 2005 ) . The British Sociological Association ‘s ( BSA ‘s ) Statement of Ethical Practice stresses that “Sociologists, when they carry out research, enter into personal and moral relationships with those they study” . Therefore, the research workers should ever admit possible ethical jobs involved to avoid unneeded quandary. The research about Laskarina is non an exclusion.The first affair I note here is the potency of confidentiality quandary.
It is research workers ‘ load to do certain confidentiality is non breached by accident or as effect of sloppiness in the handling of informations ( Gregory 2003 ) . Nevertheless, in Laskarina paper, the writers use the existent of this company in their paper. If the company allows the research workers to give its existent name, it will non count but if they do non hold understanding to uncover company existent name they will meet the breach of confidentiality. Bing given the existent name, the content of the paper will impact on company ‘s public image or its repute. Furthermore, names of employees in the interviews are non anon. that can do incommodiousness for them. For illustration, in the terminal of the research, many staff took redundancy when Laskarina ‘s office moved to a new site and needed to happen new occupation in the hereafter. However, information which they provide research workers will do trouble for them to happen occupation for some employers are afraid of unresolved voice or staff disposing company ‘s information.
Compared with Laskarina research, in Kamenou ‘s paper she does non uncover existent names and employees straight affecting her research that is a cautious action because her paper ‘s focal point is related to ethnicity, a sensitive subject.Additionally, narrative interviewing is every bit similar as “opening a Pandora ‘s box” ( Lieblich 1996 ) . Even when the subject is non sensitive or upseting for respondents, one time interviews are given the infinite to supply narratives about their experiences some unexpected distressful histories can emerge ( Elliott 2005 ) . In Laskarina, when the research workers listen unresolved voice, the interviewees show nerve-racking sides in their work such as working long hours, the intense nature of the work, the deficiency of privateness. Therefore, the interviewers need to be practiced plenty to direct the interview to the manner which minimizes any long-run negative effects of the research experience on participants ( Elliot 2005 ) .Ultimately, another possible ethical quandary refering Laskarina research is informed consent. Informed consent refers to the issue that the participants are entitled to cognize that they are being researched, be informed about the research ‘s nature and withdraw from the research at any clip ( Seale et Al 2007 ) .
However, in any organisational research, formal entree is ever used to derive company ‘s credence with an confidences provided about necessary namelessness so a likely job here is whether company ‘s employees are optional to take portion in the undertaking or they feel coerced into lending. Furthermore, because their company recommends them to take part in, they can non retreat easy from the research. Furthermore, they are instructed from their direction that the research worker will entree them to transport out the interviews so it is possible that they are provided small information about nature of the research.
In a nutshell, I have discovered three possible ethical quandary affecting this sort of research. Such affairs should be acknowledged by research workers to avoid force of ethic.