The physical loss of topsoil, reduction in rooting

Thematerial is easy to read. Cases of soil erosion in different countries werecompared. I agree with this paper that soil erosion is really a serious problem.Soil is amongst the most precious resources to humankind. However, thisresource would be greatly affected by climate change.

With extreme weatherevents like super typhoons, soil will become softer and rate of erosion willincrease. The amount of rainfall is a factor in the occurrence of soil erosion. Steep slopes are greatly affected due topopulation pressure. Soil erosionreduces soil productivity by physical loss of topsoil, reduction in rootingdepth and loss of water. Thus, crop productivity is affected soas food security.Basedon the material, human and physiographic variables contributing to soil erosionare complex which is the reason why there is no single theory on soil erosion.

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This is the reason why the equation of soil erosion is not accepted in somedisciplines. Rainfall, slope, elevation and soil property are also importantvariables to consider to determine soil erosion rate. Since population is increasing, there is aneed for modern agricultural practices such as mechanization which hastens soildegradation. In the case of Rwanda, deforestation, shortened fallow andovergrazing threatens soil fragility. However, other factors like soilcompaction, loss of soil structure, nutrient degradation and soil salinity werebarely mentioned in the material.

Land conversion also leads to soildegradation. All of these anthropogenic activities will lead to desertificationwhich can be intensified by climate change and lead to irreversible damage inthe ecosystem. The effects of soil erosion gobeyond the loss of fertile land. It leads to increase sedimentation in bodiesof water which can lead to clogging which in turn declines biodiversity.

Flooding will also worsen.  Onthe other hand, soil conservation practices were also mentioned such as croprotation, fallowing, and terracing. The concept of land-use was stated also.Change of land use practices and soil conservation were emphasized. Thepolitical-economic context in which land-users find themselves is veryimportant. Social factor now comes in.

Again, the values of people when itcomes to the use of natural resources and technology influences resource use.There is strong need to educate the farmers on how to use soil in a sustainablemanner. Sustainable agricultural practices should be promoted. Their indigenousknowledge on how to do this should also be incorporated.  In the advent of climate change, reducing theimpacts of soil erosion is very essential because it threatens food security.

Thelivelihoods of farmers depend on the health of the soil which in turn affectsthe global community. Thus, it is a challenge to humankind to conserve the soiland protect biodiversity which springs from it.