What is drug maltreatment? There are many definitions of it. Normally, common people think that taking drugs can fulfill individuals ‘ desire of felicity. Just as Miller ( 1995 ) states “ Drug maltreatment implies willful, improper usage due to an implicit in upset or a pursuit for hedonic or immoral pleasance ” i??p.
10i?‰ . Actually, it includes many facets – non merely societal values but besides scientific position and non merely physical grounds but besides psychological elements. So the definition of drug maltreatment typically refers to 4 dimensions, including the nonmedical usage of a substance, changing the mental province, a mode that is damaging to the person or the community and illegality ( Abadinsky, 2001 ) .Papalia, Olds and Feldman ( 2009 ) define substance dependance as physical dependence or psychological add-on or both to a harmful substance. If an stripling has drug maltreatment, the maltreatment can take to “ substance dependance, or dependence, which may be physiological, psychological, or both and is likely to go on into maturity ” ( Papalia et al. , 2009, p. 366 ) . Addictive drugs have peculiarly high hazard for striplings as they stimulate parts of the developing encephalons of striplings ( Chambers, Taylor & A ; Potenza, 2003 ) .
As economic development, the drug-taking state of affairs of striplings is non acquiring better. Harmonizing to the World Drug Report 2010 ( United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime [ UNODC ] , 2010 ) , drug usage has stabilized in the developed universe, nevertheless, there are marks of an addition in drug usage in developing states and turning maltreatment of amphetamine-type stimulations and prescription drugs around the universe. From 2004 to 2009, the figure of drug-taking people who was under 21 old ages old was increased by more than 50 % in Hong Kong ( Zhu, 2010 ) . What are the hazard factors for drug maltreatment of striplings? There are 4 sorts of common hazard factorsi??including Psychosocial Factors i??Low Self-esteem, Depression and Suicidei?‰ , Family Factors ( Low Familism, Family Substance Abuse Problems and Parent Smoking ) , Peer Factors ( Perceived Peer Approval and Perceived Peer Use ) and Deviance Factors ( Disposition to Deviance and Delinquent Behavior ) ( Vega & A ; Gil, 1998 ) . It can non easy state which factor is the most of import 1. It depends on the state of affairss those different adolescent experiences.
Three Models for Drug Abuse Prevention
Drug maltreatment bar aimed at cut downing the supply or the demand for drugs of maltreatment ( Abadinsky, 2001 ) . There are three theoretical accounts ( Ellickson, 1995 ) that focused on schools and school-based antidrug plans, including information theoretical account, affectional theoretical account and societal influence theoretical account.
Adolescents can likely avoid drugs, if they comprehend their possible jeopardies, so this theoretical account chiefly aimed at giving information. “ The information theoretical account posits a causal sequence taking from cognition ( about drugs ) to attitude alteration ( negative ) to behavior alteration ( nonuse ) ” ( Ellickson, 1995, p. 100 ) . Sometimes the daze or panic is needed in this theoretical account, such as “ difficult striking ” antidrug pictures, negotiations by ex-junkies, or Television and hoarding runs that show the frightened state of affairs of drug usage ( Cohen, 1996 ) . This theoretical account chiefly focuses on the educational attack. It was supposed that pupils can do rational determinations to maintain away from drugs because of increasing cognition ( Abadinsky, 2001 ) .
Through information theoretical account, striplings can hold a correct and renewed consciousness of drug maltreatment.
This theoretical account pays more attending on persons themselves and their personality. “ The theoretical account assumes that striplings who turn to drugs make so because of jobs within themselves-low self-esteem or unequal personal accomplishments in communicating and determination devising ” ( Ellickson, 1995, p.
101 ) . This theoretical account has an effort at bettering a pupil ‘s self-image, ability to interact within a group and problem-solving ability, and dressed ores on feelings, values, and self-awareness, and sometimes on personal values and picks ( Abadinsky, 2001 ) . “ These premises are by and large implemented through communicating preparation, equal guidance, function playing and assertiveness preparation ” ( Abadinsky, 2001, p. 232 ) . Using affectional theoretical account, striplings can beef up their assurance, better competence of covering with incidents and have right value judgement.
Social Influence Model
This theoretical account more focal points on decision-making. “ The societal influence theoretical account is centered on external influences that push pupils toward drug usage, particularly peer force per unit area, every bit good as internal influences, such as the desire to be accepted by ‘the crowd ‘ ” ( Abadinsky, 2001, p. 229 ) .
There are two marks that need to accomplish via societal influence theoretical account. First this theoretical account aims to allow stripling to hold the consciousness of the equal force per unit areas that they are sing and secondly to better their opposition accomplishments for stating no under emphasis ( Abadinsky, 2001 ) .
Treatments for Drug Abuse
There are two chief facets of drug maltreatment interventions, including chemical interventions and psychological interventions.
Harmonizing to the categorization of Abadinsky ( 2001 ) , chemical interventions contain opioid adversaries, chemicals for detoxification, opioid agonists, chemical responses to cocaine maltreatment and CRF adversaries. Abadinsky ( 2001 ) besides mentions that psychological interventions include a psychoanalytic attack, behavior alteration and group intervention.Due to the demands of survey and the bound of professional knowledgei??this paper chiefly focuses on the psychological facets.
Firstlyi??let us look at the psychoanalytic attack. This attack is really professional and high cost. It is really complicated and hard to command for societal workers. It does non hold catholicity and possible reproduction. This attack normally applies in some particular and serious instances. Then we move on to the behavior alteration. There are 4 primary sorts of behavior alteration, such as antipathy intervention, societal larning theory attack, cognitive acquisition theory attack and eventuality direction and eventuality catching ( Abadinsky, 2001 ) .
Although the success rate of antipathy intervention is high, it is a sort of compulsive and cold curative method, particularly for striplings, no affair in physical or mental sides. This intervention addresses the symptoms, non the cause. Abusers will take drugs once more when the antipathy conditioned automatic starts to weaken. Contingency direction and eventuality catching is outside the range of this paper ‘s enquiry. Social larning theory attack and cognitive acquisition theory attack are referred below. Group intervention is really utile and widespread. It is frequently used by societal workers.
Prevention and intercession program of striplings ‘ drug maltreatment
There are three dimensions of bar and intercession program in this paper. They are macro degree, mezzo degree and micro degree.
This degree is more about bar program. Harmonizing to the Information Model ( Ellickson, 1995 ) , it needs at least three-party attempts, including school, community and school.School. Schools should heighten the instruction of drug maltreatment and the drug maltreatment ‘s jeopardies, non merely verbal and written signifiers, but besides some other lively signifiers, such as films and activities. I think the film Crimson Jade is really aghast 1. Possibly schools can happen more films of this sort to demo to striplings.
If they know the fearful effects of drug maltreatment, they will desire to take drugs less.Community. Actually communities execute a really similar function with schools for the bar of striplings. But another thing that communities should pay particular attending to is about striplings ‘ household state of affairs, particularly for the striplings whose parents have substance maltreatment jobs.
Media. Mass media should play a positive and active function in bar of striplings ‘ drug maltreatment. Some programmes that focus on drug maltreatment should be shown on a regular basis. And ground-breaking ocular public service advertisement of drug maltreatment should demo on Television, newspaper, Internet, even billboard everyplace.Social influence theoretical account ( Ellickson, 1995 ) can be besides used in macro degree. Schools can do many talks to allow pupils cognize that they are all under equal force per unit areas and form some activities to learn pupils to develop opposition accomplishments for drug maltreatment.
Mezzo degree contains bar program and intercession program. It is more about group work. Group attack “ is that stimulation toward betterment arises from net work of interpersonal influences in which all members take part ” ( Northern, 1969, p. 52 ) . Group work is one of the most common work methods for societal workers.
Prevention program of mezzo degree. The bar program concentrates on affectional theoretical account. Mentioning to affectional theoretical account ( Ellickson, 1995 ) , striplings are divided into groups to make some guidance and preparation about “ affectional accomplishments ( communicating, determination devising, self-assertion ) believed related to drug usage ” ( Abadinsky, 2001 ) . The guidance and developing need the engagement of societal workers. In this sort of group, societal workers should pay particular attending to those striplings who do non desire to speak.Intervention program of macro degree.
This intercession program focuses on group intervention. Due to societal workers may non hold drug-taking experience, group intervention can do adolescent clients experience more willing to pass on and peer interaction is more powerful ( Abadinsky, 2001 ) . In add-on, some debatable interpersonal Acts of the Apostless will look in a group ( Flores, 1988 ) . Using group intervention, striplings of drug maltreatment can “ portion and place with others who are traveling through similar jobs ; understand their ain attitudes about dependence and defences in others ; and larn to pass on demands and feelings more straight ” ( Flores, 1988, p. 7 ) . Adolescents truly need the support from others. Social workers should pay particular attending to utmost clients who are non appropriate with group intervention and societal workers should guarantee a suited graduated table of different groups.
Micro degree more concerns on adolescent maltreaters themselves and their milieus. There are two utile intercession attacks with this degree – one is societal larning theory attack and the other one is cognitive larning theory attack.Social larning theory attack.
Abadinsky ( 2001 ) identifies societal larning theory as “ a discrepancy of behaviourism focal points on cognitive meditational procedures and people are active participants in their operant conditioning processes-they determine what is and what is non reenforcing ” ( p. 205 ) . Actually there are many grounds behind the striplings who have drug maltreatment. Possibly there are some jobs with their households, their school public presentation, their interpersonal communicating and organic structures ‘ agony.
Social workers must pay more attending to the grounds behind the drug maltreatment of striplings and give more forbearance. So in this intercession, societal workers should follow three stairss. The first measure is to “ understand why patients may be more likely to utilize in a given state of affairs and to understand the function that drugs play in their lives ” ( Abadinsky, 2001, p. 205 ) . The 2nd measure is “ to assist patients develop meaningful alternate reinforcing stimuluss to drug maltreatment, that is, other activities and engagements ( relationships, work and avocations ) ” ( Abadinsky, 2001, p.
205 ) . The 3rd measure is to do a elaborate scrutiny of the effects for adolescent clients to prove whether their drug maltreatment reduces ( Abadinsky, 2001 ) . Social workers should seek their best to happen the root causes of striplings ‘ drug maltreatment and header with them. This attack focuses on the milieus of adolescent maltreaters.
Cognitive acquisition theory attack. This attack emphasizes the consciousness of positive and negative effects of drug maltreatment for striplings themselves and the agreements before taking drugs ( Abadinsky, 2001 ) . Social workers can inquire adolescent maltreaters to compose a dairy of their drug abuse that includes the state of affairss when they use drugs and the effects after they use drugs. Social workers ought to animate clients to reexamine their worst experience with drug maltreatment and believe more about the bad impact of taking drugs.
This sort of panic tactic can detain the period before taking drugs. Then societal workers besides need to learn adolescent maltreaters a set of relax accomplishments to better their tenseness. This attack focuses on adolescent maltreaters themselves and relies on their ain consciousness to cut down drug maltreatment.Drug maltreatment of striplings is truly a barbarous spiral and a long-run perennial procedure.
It needs non merely the societal workers ‘ and adolescent maltreaters ‘ attempts, but besides their households ‘ , friends ‘ , other relevant individuals ‘ and the whole society ‘s attempts.