DWDM is the technology that allows multiple streams of data to flow in one optical fiber of optical communication network. DWDM is the key technology at the heart of new systems and networks that offers more bandwidth at less cost. Soon, DWDM promises to change bandwidth from a premium to a commodity item. DWDM: Networks, Devices, and Technology provides a comprehensive treatment of DWDM, its technology, systems, and networks, as well as engineering design. Over the last decade, fiber optic cables have been installed by carriers as the backbone of their interoffice networks, becoming the mainstay of the telecommuni-cations infrastructure.
Using time division multiplexing (TDM) technology, carriers now routinely transmit information at 2. 4 Gb/s on a single fiber, with some deploying equipment that quadruples that rate to 10 Gb/s. The revolution in high bandwidth applications and the explosive growth of the Internet, however, have created capacity demands that exceed traditional TDM limits. As a result, the once seemingly inexhaustible bandwidth promised by the deployment of optical fiber in the 1980s is being exhausted.
To meet growing demands for bandwidth, a technology called Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM) has been developed that multiplies the capacity of a single fiber. DWDM systems being deployed today can increase a single fiber’s capacitysixteen fold, to a throughput of 40 Gb/s! This cutting edge technology—when combined with network management systems and add-drop multiplexers enables carriers to adopt optically-based transmission networks that will meet the next generation of band- width demand at a significantly lower cost than installing new fiber. CONTENT 1. The Challenges In Today’s optical networks. 2.
WDM System. 3 DWDM 4. Components of DWDM 5. Why DWDM? 6. Benifits 7. Conclusion 1. The Challenges In Today’s optical networks To understand the importance of DWDM, These capabilities must be discussed in the context of the challeges faced by telecommunication industry,and in particular,service provider. Most networks were built using estimates that calculated bandwidth capacity use by emplying ratios derived from classical engineering formulas. This factor did not factor in the amount of traffic genrated by the internet acess(300 percent per year). Had thse factors been included, a far diffrent estimates would have emerged.
Therfore, an enormous amount of bandwidth capacity is required to provide the services demanded by consumer. In addtion to this explosion in consumer demand for bandwidth, many service providers are coping with fibre exhaust in their networks. An industry survey indicateed tha in 1995, the amount of embedded fibre already in use in the average network was between 70 percent to 80 percent. Today many carrier are nearing hundred percent capacity utilization across significant portion of their network . Another problem for carriers is the deploying and integrating diverse technologies in one physical infrastructure. ustomer demands and competitive pressure mandate that carriers offers diverse services economically and deploy them over the embedded network . DWDM provides service proviser a answer to that demand(see figure 1). 2. WDM systems To understand the concepts of DWDM systems ,first we must understand WDM System. A WDM system uses a multiplexer at the transmitter to join the signals together, and a demultiplexer at the receiver to split them apart. With the right type of fiber it is possible to have a device that does both simultaneously, and can function as an optical add-drop multiplexer.
The optical filtering devices used have traditionally been etalons, stable solid-state single-frequency Fabry–Perot interferometers in the form of thin-film-coated optical glass. The concept was first published in 1970, and by 1978 WDM systems were being realized in the laboratory. The first WDM systems only combined two signals. Modern systems can handle up to 160 signals and can thus expand a basic 10 Gbit/s system over a single fiber pair to over 1. 6 Tbit/s. WDM systems are popular with telecommunications companies because they allow them to expand the capacity of the network without laying more fiber.
By using WDM and optical amplifiers, they can accommodate several generations of technology development in their optical infrastructure without having to overhaul the backbone network. Capacity of a given link can be expanded by simply upgrading the multiplexers and demultiplexers at each end. This is often done by using optical-to-electrical-to-optical (O/E/O) translation at the very edge of the transport network, thus permitting interoperation with existing equipment with optical interfaces. Most WDM systems operate on single-mode fiber optical cables, which have a core diameter of 9 µm.
Certain forms of WDM can also be used in multi-mode fiber cables (also known as premises cables) which have core diameters of 50 or 62. 5 µm. Early WDM systems were expensive and complicated to run. However, recent standardization and better understanding of the dynamics of WDM systems have made WDM less expensive to deploy. Optical receivers, in contrast to laser sources, tend to be wideband devices. Therefore the demultiplexer must provide the wavelength selectivity of the receiver in the WDM system. WDM systems are divided in different wavelength patterns, conventional or coarse and dense WDM.
Conventional WDM systems provide up to 8 channels in the 3rd transmission window (C-Band) of silica fibers around 1550 nm. Dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) uses the same transmission window but with denser channel spacing. Channel plans vary, but a typical system would use 40 channels at 100 GHz spacing or 80 channels with 50 GHz spacing. Some technologies are capable of 25 GHz spacing (sometimes called ultra dense WDM). New amplification options (Raman amplification) enable the extension of the usable wavelengths to the L-band, more or less doubling these numbers.
Coarse wavelength division multiplexing (CWDM) in contrast to conventional WDM and DWDM uses increased channel spacing to allow less sophisticated and thus cheaper transceiver designs. To again provide 8 channels on a single fiber CWDM uses the entire frequency band between second and third transmission window (1310/1550 nm respectively) including both windows (minimum dispersion window and minimum attenuation window) but also the critical area where OH scattering may occur, recommending the use of OH-free silica fibers in case the wavelengths between second and third transmission window shall also be used.
Avoiding this region, the channels 31, 49, 51, 53, 55, 57, 59, 61 remain and these are the most commonly used. WDM, DWDM and CWDM are based on the same concept of using multiple wavelengths of light on a single fiber, but differ in the spacing of the wavelengths, number of channels, and the ability to amplify the multiplexed signals in the optical space. EDFA provide an efficient wideband amplification for the C-band, Raman amplification adds a mechanism for amplification in the L-band. For CWDM wideband optical amplification is not available, limiting the optical spans to several tens of kilometres. . DWDM Dense wavelength division multiplexing, or DWDM for short, refers originally to optical signals multiplexed within the 1550 nm band so as to leverage the capabilities (and cost) of erbium doped fiber amplifiers (EDFAs), which are effective for wavelengths between approximately 1525–1565 nm (C band), or 1570–1610 nm (L band). EDFAs were originally developed to replace SONET/SDH optical-electrical-optical (OEO) regenerators, which they have made practically obsolete. EDFAs can amplify any optical signal in their operating range, regardless of the modulated bit rate.
In terms of multi-wavelength signals, so long as the EDFA has enough pump energy available to it, it can amplify as many optical signals as can be multiplexed into its amplification band (though signal densities are limited by choice of modulation format). EDFAs therefore allow a single-channel optical link to be upgraded in bit rate by replacing only equipment at the ends of the link, while retaining the existing EDFA or series of EDFAs through a long haul route. Furthermore, single-wavelength links using EDFAs can similarly be upgraded to WDM links at reasonable cost.
The EDFAs cost is thus leveraged across as many channels as can be multiplexed into the 1550 nm band. 4. Components of DWDM System A DWDM terminal multiplexer. The terminal multiplexer actually contains one wavelength converting transponder for each wavelength signal it will carry. The wavelength converting transponders receive the input optical signal (i. e. , from a client-layer SONET/SDH or other signal), convert that signal into the electrical domain, and retransmit the signal using a 1550 nm band laser. Early DWDM systems contained 4 or 8 wavelength converting transponders in the mid 1990s. By 2000 or so, commercial systems capable of carrying 128 signals were available. ) The terminal mux also contains an optical multiplexer, which takes the various 1550 nm band signals and places them onto a single fiber (e. g. SMF-28 fiber). The terminal multiplexer may or may not also support a local EDFA for power amplification of the multi-wavelength optical signal. An intermediate line repeater It is placed approx. very 80 – 100 km for compensating the loss in optical power, while the signal travels along the fiber. The signal is amplified by an EDFA, which usually consists of several amplifier stages. An intermediate optical terminal, or optical add-drop multiplexer. This is a remote amplification site that amplifies the multi-wavelength signal that may have traversed up to 140 km or more before reaching the remote site. Optical diagnostics and telemetry are often extracted or inserted at such a site, to allow for localization of any fiber breaks or signal impairments.
In more sophisticated systems (which are no longer point-to-point), several signals out of the multiwavelength signal may be removed and dropped locally. A DWDM terminal demultiplexer. The terminal demultiplexer breaks the multi-wavelength signal back into individual signals and outputs them on separate fibers for client-layer systems (such as SONET/SDH) to detect. Originally, this demultiplexing was performed entirely passively, except for some telemetry, as most SONET systems can receive 1550-nm signals.
However, in order to allow for transmission to remote client-layer systems (and to allow for digital domain signal integrity determination) such demultiplexed signals are usually sent to O/E/O output transponders prior to being relayed to their client-layer systems. Often, the functionality of output transponder has been integrated into that of input transponder, so that most commercial systems have transponders that support bi-directional interfaces on both their 1550-nm (i. e. , internal) side, and external (i. e. , client-facing) side.
Transponders in some systems supporting 40 GHz nominal operation may also perform forward error correction (FEC) via ‘digital wrapper’ technology, as described in the ITU-T G. 709 standard. Optical Supervisory Channel (OSC). This is an additional wavelength usually outside the EDFA amplification band (at 1510 nm, 1620 nm, 1310 nm or another proprietary wavelength). The OSC carries information about the multi-wavelength optical signal as well as remote conditions at the optical terminal or EDFA site. It is also normally used for remote software upgrades and user (i. e. network operator) Network Management information. It is the multi-wavelength analogue to SONET’s DCC (or supervisory channel). ITU standards suggest that the OSC should utilize an OC-3 signal structure, though some vendors have opted to use 100 megabit Ethernet or another signal format. Unlike the 1550 nm band client signal-carrying wavelengths, the OSC is always terminated at intermediate amplifier sites, where it receives local information before retransmission. The introduction of the ITU-T G. 694. 1 frequency grid in 2002 has made it easier to integrate WDM with older but more standard SONET/SDH systems.
WDM wavelengths are positioned in a grid having exactly 100 GHz (about 0. 8 nm) spacing in optical frequency, with a reference frequency fixed at 193. 10 THz (1552. 52 nm). The main grid is placed inside the optical fiber amplifier bandwidth, but can be extended to wider bandwidths. Today’s DWDM systems use 50 GHz or even 25 GHz channel spacing for up to 160 channel operation . DWDM systems have to maintain more stable wavelength or frequency than those needed for CWDM because of the closer spacing of the wavelengths.
Precision temperature control of laser transmitter is required in DWDM systems to prevent “drift” off a very narrow frequency window of the order of a few GHz. In addition, since DWDM provides greater maximum capacity it tends to be used at a higher level in the communications hierarchy than CWDM, for example on the Internet backbone and is therefore associated with higher modulation rates, thus creating a smaller market for DWDM devices with very high performance levels. These factors of smaller volume and higher performance result in DWDM systems typically being more expensive than CWDM.
Recent innovations in DWDM transport systems include pluggable and software-tunable transceiver modules capable of operating on 40 or 80 channels. This dramatically reduces the need for discrete spare pluggable modules, when a handful of pluggable devices can handle the full range of wavelengths. 5. Why DWDM?? From both technical and economic perspectives, the ability to provide potentially unlimited transmission capacity is the most obviousadvantage of DWDM technology. The current investment in fiber plant can not only be preserved, but optimized by a factor of at least 32. apacity can be obtained for the cost of the equipment, and existing fiber plant investment is retained 6. Benifits Capacity increase :DWDM have Large aggregate transmission capacity THAN ordinary network systems. Upgradability : Bandwidth of DWDM system can be easily upgraded,that is Customer growth without requiring additional fiber to be laid. Flexibility : Optical Add/Drop Multiplexing (OADM) Optical Cross connect (OXC) Scalability : The possibility to add new nodes to the network.
Network Transparency : DWDm networks areIndependent of data rate, format &protocols. So greater speed and bandwidth 6. Conclusion ————————————————- DWDM networks consist of many densely packed wavelength channels propagating independently (and even bi- directionally) within the physical fibers making up a given system. The `virtual fibers’ within a DWDM transport network, aside from providing higher bandwidth capability, are able to expand overall network flexibility as well as improve reliability.
Bandwidth increase is satisfied by adding wavelength channels via increasing the density of channels and/or by expanding the spectral region for incorporating additional channels. The increased flexibility addresses complex and continuously varying topologies and the frequent need to flexibly add/drop channels and re- provision channels. Further, the incorporation of non- intrusive monitoring of all optical wavelengths s improves network reliability by enabling element control, improved network management, and predictive network failure capability.