The respiratory system provides oxygen to the body’s


respiratory system provides oxygen to the body’s cells removing carbon dioxide,
a waste product that can be lethal if allowed to accumulate. There are three
significant parts of the respiratory system, the airway, the lungs, and muscle.


organs of the respiratory system can be divided functionally into the
conducting zone and the respiratory zone. 
The conducting region is the airway from the nose or mouth down to the
bronchioles and is significant site responsible for transporting air and any foreign
particles.  The respiratory area includes
the bronchioles down to the alveoli, where gas exchange takes please via a
diffusion process.  The respiratory
system starts at the place where air enters the body through the nose (nasal
cavity), this structure provides humans with the sense of smell while
filtering, warming, and humidifying inhaled air.  Air that reaches through the nose travels to
the pharynx or throat, which is the cone-shaped passageway leading to the
larynx which has the voice box and is a hollow tube connected to the
windpipe,  After passing through the
larynx, air travels through the trachea, also known as the windpipe. Here the
air is cleaned and then moistened before entering the lungs. The lungs are in
three lobes the right superior, middle and inferior lobe. The left lung is
diminutive and has only two lobes the left superior and inferior lobe both
associated externally with small tubular. The fresh air then progresses into
the deep tissues of the lungs ultimately reaching the area gas exchanged the centre
of the respiratory system.

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is initiated by the contraction of the diaphragm lines the lower part of the
thorax, sealing it off air-tight from the abdominal cavity below.  Its compression causes muscles in the thorax
to pull the anterior end of each rib in and outwards to enlarge its
volume.  As a result, the tension inside
the thorax and the lungs decrease relative to the outside atmospheric air
pressure. Firstly, air enters the body through the mouth or nose and quickly moves
to pharynx or throat. It then passes through the larynx or voice box which
links to the trachea that has strong tube c shape that contains rings of
cartilage which prevent it from collapsing, within the lungs the trachea
branches into the left and right bronchus which further divide into smaller
branches called bronchioles. The smallest bronchioles in a tiny air sac called
alveoli which inflate during inhalation and deflate during exhalation. During
internal swallowing, the back of the tongue that is joined to the top of the
larynx, pushes upward, forcing the epiglottis to close over the glottis,
preventing food or foreign objects from entering the larynx. If any items enter
the vocal folds, stimulation of the larynx muscles causes a cough reflex to try
and expel the elements to prevent choking.


exchange is the distribution of oxygen of the lungs to the bloodstream and the
replacement of carbon dioxide of the bloodstream to the lungs.  It transpires in the lungs between the
alveoli and a system of tiny blood vessels called capillaries which are located
the walls of the alveoli where the red blood cells travel through the
capillaries hence making it possible for oxygen and carbon dioxide to diffuse
or move freely between the respiratory system and the bloodstream. Oxygen


to red blood cells which move back to the heart at the equivalent moment, the
carbon dioxide molecules in the alveoli are inflated out of the body with the
next exhalation. The gas exchange allows the body to replenish the oxygen and
eliminate the carbon dioxide both of which are necessary for survival.


damages the, respiratory system. Every time an individual smokes, the toxic
gases pass through the lungs then into the bloodstream, where they flow to every
organ in the body. Cigarette smoke contains the poisoned gases, carbon
monoxide, and nitrogen oxide. All classes of tobacco are hazardous, including
cigar pipes, and smokeless tobacco such as chewing tobacco and snuff. Nicotine
is an addictive chemical in tobacco. Smoking affects the two lungs airways,
also called bronchial tubes and small air sacs called alveoli.  Tiny hair-like known as cilia causing harmful
substances to the lungs causing irritates to the bronchial tubes producing them
to increase and make mucus. Therefore, slowing the movement of the cilia as a
result of smoke making mucus to stay in the lungs, whiles sleeping some the
cilia recover and start pushing more pollutants and mucus out of the
lungs.  When woke up the body attempts to
expel this material by coughing repeatedly, the condition known as the smoker’s
cough. In no time, chronic bronchitis develops as the cilia stop working and
the airways become clogged with mucus. Breathing can become more difficult,
causing the lungs to become more vulnerable to further disease such as chronic
bronchitis and emphysema which is collectively called


which is the gradual loss of the ability to breathe for which there is no


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