After come ining secondary school, her male parent was declared belly-up and her female parent was about sent to gaol for being a loan-shark smuggler. Her parents started borrowing from all her relations to do ends meet. She was besides required to use for fiscal assistance, for her ain pocket money. In the pandemonium, she sought company with her friends in school and hung out with them all the clip, seeking to submerge out her jobs. Unfortunately, she mixed around with incorrect company and was involved in serious school intimidation.
There are a few issues in Maria ‘s life, foremost, her dwindling and superficial relationship with her parents. Second, the alteration in the societal position during her lower secondary school life, doing the alteration of position on her self-esteem and self-concept, and in conclusion, force and aggression shown in school as a agency to turn out societal competency.
Context of Development
Bronfenbrenner ‘s Bioecological Theory
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We can mention to Bronfenbrenner ‘s Bioecological Theory and explicate how Maria ‘s environment affected her adversely.
The microsystem is the immediate environment where the kid lives in, which includes household, school, and health professionals. The microsystem interacts with the kid and affects how the kid grows ; the more positive the environment, the better the result. In a manner, it shapes the kid ‘s personality and disposition. ( Bronfenbrenner, 1995 )
The mesosystem is the relationship between microsystems and how they work together in relation to the kid. In Maria ‘s instance, there was no interaction between her parents and her school. Her parents had ne’er been to her school events, which Maria ever dreaded, because of their absence. She is non motivated to execute in school since her apathetic parents show small involvement in her experience in school, her consequences, and cognize small of her activities and whereabouts. ( Steinberg, 2005 ) .
The exosystem is the external environment that straight affects the kid ‘s development. Maria ‘s working parents resulted in the deficiency of attending and clip spent together, that Maria so urgently needed as a kid.
All the systems interacted and influenced Maria co-relationally, determining her behaviour, feelings and perceptual experience over clip, which caused her to go an independent and less swearing single.
Education research has shown that regular parent-teacher battles are one of the major factors that contribute to a kid ‘s accomplishment in school ( Anne & A ; Karen, 2002 ) . In Maria ‘s instance, the mesosystem can be strengthened to accomplish holistic wellbeing, and besides complementing a section of the microsystem, the household.
As a instructor, I would set up the undermentioned proven schemes:
Formal Meetups – Meet the parents session
Formal Written Communication – Mail correspondence and study cards necessitating signatures, and e-mail correspondence.
Informal Meetups – School dramas, athleticss events and category assemblages, where parents can be invited down for family.
( Epstein, 2001, 2009 )
Family Context and Parenting Practices
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John Bowlby ‘s Attachment Theory
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Turning under the attention of her amah caused Maria ‘s deficiency of emotional fond regard and contact comfort with her parents. Children need attending and love, which Maria was deprived of. Maria ‘s parents ‘ disregard implied that she was the least precedence of her parents. Soon, she became distrustful of her parents. This deficiency of trust, and desire for attending landed Maria in the Insecure-ambivalent fond regard manner where she desired her parent ‘s attending, but at the same clip, resisted them to protect herself from acquiring hurt even more ( Bowlby, 1979 ) .
Classified into this attachment manner, she had trust and fond regard issues, which caused her relationships to be superficial and commitment-avoidant, and in bend affected her societal and emotional development that she experienced when she was older ( Coon & A ; Mitterer, 2007 ) .
Debatable dealingss in the household normally start during childhood, and research shows that kids who enjoy positive relationship with their parents during childhood are less likely to develop serious jobs during adolescence ( Fletcher et al. , 2004 ) . Maria ‘s superficial relationship with her parents started during her childhood when she was most waxy to develop intimacy and fond regard. It was difficult for Maria to develop on the strained relationship when she is older as there was barely any resonance to get down with.
Stairss to reconstruct trust among parents and teens
Surveies show that non all is lost even if the parent-adolescent relationship was non strong to get down with. The undermentioned stairss are proven and can be taken by the parents to reconstruct trust and better relationships, and as a instructor, I would pass on the following to Maria ‘s parents ( Gabe, 2001 ) :
Restore hebdomadal rites – Eating together hebdomadally, heading out on weekends together.
Restore empathy – Seek to understand the adolescent and the emotional discord he/she is confronting.
Restore positive support – Praise the adolescent publically and in private. This promotes self-esteem and assurance.
Restore fondness – Express love unconditionally, by stating ‘I Love You ‘ or snoging the adolescent before he/she slumbers.
Restore communicating – Speak to the adolescent on a day-to-day footing. This shows attention and concern, pivotal to a good healthy relationship.
Seek reding – Seeking aid from a professional would hasten and assist to better the labored relationship, through true and contributing therapy Sessionss.
Self and Identity Development
The sudden alteration in the societal economic position affected Maria ‘s self-concept and self-esteem and developmental thought greatly. She needed to near the school for fiscal aid, while her male parent was belly-up and her female parent who was about sentenced to imprison due to chancing wonts. She found it awfully abashing and it caused her to be highly self-aware. During adolescence, many teens follow the societal norm to suit in and to derive societal competency ( Anderman 2011 ) , and Maria found herself impeded by her ugly household personal businesss.
Self-concept consists of one ‘s thoughts, perceptual experiences, and feelings about their physical, societal, and academic competency ( Pintrich & A ; Schunk, as cited in Tan, 2011 ) . It is a ‘mental ‘ image you have of your ain personality.
Maria had been really witting of how she looked as she thought that image and beauty, commanded power and attending, particularly so under the influence of the media ( Weiner, 2007 ) . She lost the fiscal capableness to do herself look reasonably and stylish, to have all the latest appliances to be considered ‘cool ‘ by her equals, which made her feel inferior.
Self-esteem is the value each of us place on our features, abilities and behaviours ( Tan, 2011 ) . For Maria, school was about blending in and being a portion of a societal group. Due to her inattentive upbringing without positive avowal, Maria had low self-esteem, stemming from the fact that even her parents, who are the closest people to her, did non love and care for her, doing her dignity to decrease.
Erikson ‘s Psychosocial Theory
Phase 2: Autonomy versus Shame and Doubt
Erikson ‘s psychosocial theory ‘s phase two discussed the struggle between liberty versus shame and uncertainty which happens to kids ages one to three, but it emerges once more in adolescence. He highlighted the importance of relationships with others in the formation of one ‘s ain individuality during adolescence. ( Tan, 2011 )
Maria ‘s wanted to hold her ain privilege of friends but her fiscal position and jobs faced at place caused her to experience black and self-doubt emerged. She was thankful for any signifier of credence from coteries, and did non even make bold to see hanging out with teens that were better off socially. Her household had to depend on her relations for the fiscal support and being in debt to others made her feel ashamed, compared to the yesteryear when she was able to afford all kinds of luxuries.
Maria was really fascinated on her expressions and image, but worth should be based on personality and moral character, and I would stress the intangible over the touchable.
As Maria ‘s instructor, I would use these proven techniques to hike Maria ‘s self-pride ( Lorcher, 2011 ) :
Allow pupils to expose leading – Assign Maria leading functions, like Class Chair/Prefect, this cultivates a sense of ownership/leadership.
Avoid negative unfavorable judgment – Alternatively of negative unfavorable judgment that is rough and degrading, provide constructive unfavorable judgment that explains Maria ‘s errors and how she can farther better herself.
Display work – Display Maria ‘s work around the schoolroom. This promotes assurance in her hereafter enterprises and promotes positive feelings of accomplishment.
Believe in the pupil – Belief in Maria would in bend promote self-belief and is a cardinal measure to better dignity.
These teacher solutions would be effectual as it specifically hones their self-worth and self-esteem, what Maria urgently needs.
I would besides inform Maria ‘s parents of these proven techniques for positive parental attack ( Gurian, 2012 ) :
Listen and spend clip with the adolescent: Listening to the adolescent would construct positive resonance and promote them to be vocal and surpassing.
Praise the adolescent: This would instill a sense of dignity and a positive sense of recognition and blessing.
Be a good function theoretical account: Teenss are waxy and speedy to blame, therefore it is of import to walk the talk. Upon exposing positive mold, teens will frequently follow suit ( Katherine, M. et al. , 2001 ) .
Use the Authoritative Parenting Style ( Baumrind, 1971 ) .
Violence and Aggression
Maria ‘s deficiency attending at place caused her to turn towards her friends for comfort, support, and counsel. She felt the demand to suit in and conform to peer-pressure, which resulted her fall ining their intimidation in school, that she would be socially accepted by her friends.
School force can be seen as a merchandise of a sense of intensifying disaffection and fury ( Harris, 2004 ) . The force observed at place between her parents caused Maria to hold the perceptual experience that holding violent behaviour is normal. It was noted that toughs derive satisfaction from doing injury to others, seeking attending from equals by doing themselves look dominant and offering small empathy to others ( Coloroso, as cited in Tan, 2011 ) .
Maslow ‘s Hierarchy of Needs
Harmonizing to Abraham Maslow, the first four degree of demands are lack demands, which have to be fulfilled before an person can travel on to the following three degrees of growing demands, which leads to self-actualization.
Maria bullied because she needed to carry through her sense of belonging and self-pride demands which were case in point of her growing demands, and through strong-arming she was able to be accepted in the group and be affiliated to them on a closer footing. Her esteem demands were therefore compensated when she was seen as competent by exposing her power to the victim and the acknowledgment of her authorization.
Research shows that toughs frequently come from dysfunctional households in which there was small sense of love, support and belonging ( Rigby & A ; Slee, 1991 ) . It was found that low parental engagement contributed significantly and independently to strong-arming behaviour in striplings ( Flouri & A ; Buchanan, 2003 ) . Surveies besides display that inter-parental strife, like statements and battles at place significantly lowers a kid ‘s self-concept and heightens intimidation, farther confirming why Maria behaved the manner she did, caused by the disregard at place ( Christie-Mizell, 2003 ) .
Surveies besides show that toughs tend to hold low regards, and that they pick on others to experience better about themselves ( Rettner, 2010 ) . This displays how low self-pride caused from inattentive parenting and hapless mesosystem interactions when Maria was younger, would indirectly do negative behaviours like strong-arming in adolescence.
To assist the tough:
Turn the bully into a leader – A bully knows how to take, but does non cognize how to be a friend. Empowering the bully to function and assist others would raise empathy and understanding, something the bully would pick up and better on ( Lund, 2009 ) .
Redirect the tough ‘s energy – The athleticss and the humanistic disciplines are good mercantile establishments for defeat and look ( Lund, 2009 ) .
Monitor the pupil – Ensure that the bully is observed and he/she does non get worse into intimidation or other signifiers of negative behaviour that stems from strong-arming. ( Low self-pride, delinquency, self-destructive ideas, etc. )
Work together with the tough ‘s parents – This builds resonance and allows for greater apprehension why the bully behaves the manner he/she does. In Maria ‘s instance, us as instructors would be able to measure her household state of affairs and decently trade with the state of affairss with the solutions given above.
To forestall intimidation:
Develop policies in the category to counter strong-arming – Ensure that it is clear to the category ; strong-arming will non be tolerated and toughs will be punished badly.
Keep a close ticker on the category – Be observant to student interactions, like how some pupils are exceptionally quiet and fearful, and how nick names and badgering occur. Work together closely with the category president, to guarantee that no pupil is victimized.
Use anti strong-arming pledges as such:
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Therefore, it can be seen from Maria ‘s life, how behaviorial issues normally start from immature ; how neglect and mistakes in the mesosystem transcends into self-esteem issues, and rears its ugly caput into societal jobs like strong-arming. As instructors to be, we must be prepared for such instances. Life is ne’er a bed of roses. It is therefore up to us to assist pupils, in all forms and sizes, from the different Maria ( s ) and Michael ( s ) to come. Problems that occur in the household and school must be nipped in the bud every bit shortly as possible. Students which are given aid and are able to accommodate to the victory and calamities of life are able to regenerate their lives with sense of satisfaction and credence ( Tan, 2011 )
As instructors, we should besides seek to understand the pupil, non merely their personalities but besides the environment that is doing them to act in a certain manner.
“ Seek foremost to understand, so to be understood. ” – Steven R. Covey
By communicating and using the different utile and relational theories learnt, it will assist us understand them better and happen ways we can offer our aid to them. Having person who reaches out to them in different scenes, and cognizing that person attentions is more effectual than any manner of disciplinary penalty, particularly for Maria, who was seeking for love and blessing.
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