The low representation of disadvantaged groups could indicatethat the organisation values individual capabilities equally (Fredman, 2001), to enhance itscompetitive advantage (Barney, 1991), Through access to awide talent pool (Kandola and Fullerton, 1994), that improves innovation,problem solving, market knowledge (Ellis and Sonnenfield, 1994) and reducesgroupthink (Janis, 1982). Conversely, theorganisation’s limited diversity supports the findings of Kirton and Greene (2000)who suggest that this approach rarely results in changes in the organisation’sdemographics. In addition, the absence of a database may restrict theorganisation from aligning competencies towards their strategy and benefitingfrom this knowledge (Armstrong, 2016). Whilst performance management can facilitatecareer progression, through training and development (Armstrong, 2009). Conversely, the alignment of capabilities to thebusiness needs can often lead to training being offered to those in the primarylabour market (Cully et al., 1999). Consequently, resulting in indirect discrimination (Acas, 2017a) as it impedes theopportunities offered in the secondary labour market that is often dominated bywomen and ethnic minorities (Anker, 1997). Whilst this is suggested as a consequence of preference (Hakim, 2000), or failure to investand update their skills (Schultz, 1961; Woods, Wilkinson and Harcourt, 2008).
Conversely, the organisations focus on the individual, disregards the barriers thatare beyond the control of some groups (Collinson, Knight and Collinson, 1990).Whilstthe use of external pay and pension contractors may assist the organisationwith the gender pay gap reporting (CIPD, 2017). Conversely, thesuggestion of direct discrimination against older workers and female jobapplicants alongside harassment (Acas, 2017b). Contravenes, the legalrights of disadvantaged groups who are protectedby the Equality Act 201I (Acas, 2017a).
Which could indicatesubconscious bias, stereotypes (Lippman, 1922) prejudice (Brewer, 1988), and discrimination (Devine, 1989) within the organisation’sculture and practices (Fischer, 2007). Whilstpolicies and procedures can reduce discrimination and support fairer outcomes (Jewsonand Mason, 1986). That improves the attractionand retention of employees who perceive the organisation as ethical (Taylor, 2008). In addition, theabsence of policies may prevent the organisation from providing clear informationthat manages expectations (Armstrong, 2009). Which can underminethe employee’s perceptions of fair processes and outcomes (Mckay et al.,2007; Adams, 1965). Thus decreasing employees commitment, job satisfaction,attendance (Sanchez and Brock, 1996) and the disclosure of disabilities (Priestley,1998).
Similarly, a lack of policyregarding equality and diversity can increase tribunal fees and create negativepublicity (Ozbilgin and Tatli, 2011). However,the organisation’s individualistic approach (Schwartz, 1990) may perceive policiesand processes as modelled on the dominant culture (Liff and Wajcman, 1996). Therefore supporting sameness (Young, 1990), a negative perceptionof difference (Noon and Ogbonna, 2001) andinfluenced by implicit bias (Greenwald andBanaji, 1995). Which can undermine diversity and prevent underlyingstereotypes, prejudice or employees attitudes from being changed (Liff, 1999). In addition, managers’fear of litigation can prevent individual needs being met (Hutchinson and Purcell, 2003). Furthermore,positive action can reinforce stereotypes, that the individual’s capabilitieswere not the defining factor of the recruitment outcome (Singer and Singer, 1991). I.
Drivers for Equality and diversity at Trudge andNod Whilst the equalityand diversity approaches are often presented as contrasting and incompatible (Kandola,Fullerton and Mulroney, 1996). Malvinand Girling (2000) propose their incorporation to more effectively meet the needsof groups, individuals, employers and customers. Which could support Trudge andNod’s strategic intentions to enhance its reputation and attract talent (Taylor, 2008). In addition, reforming theorganisation’s practices and policies in line with the organisation’s strategy,structure and culture (Armstrong, 2016).
Could facilitate the moreeffective identification of potential culture clashes, that can be the primary causeof merger and acquisition failures (Cartwright and Schoenberg, 2006). In addition,Richard (2000) states that there is a positive correlation between diversity andthe performance of organisational growth strategies.However, the CIPD (2012) advises that employers in the U.K. will needto recruit for an estimated 13.5 million jobs during the next decade. However, only7 million young people will be leaving education during this period (CIPD, 2012).
Whilst women are more likely to achieve a higherdegree classification, they are often paid less than men (The Guardian, 2016).Comparatively, it is forecast that ethnicminorities will account for more than 20% of the U.K.
population in the next 10years (Owen, 2013),however, they are less likely to be employed (ONS, 2014).In addition, the size and age of the population is rising and remaining in worklonger (ONS, 2017).Furthermore, whilst 49.2% of disabled people are employed, the highest rate ofunemployment is amongst those with a degree (Brownand Powell, 2018). Therefore recruiting a morediverse workforce could support Trudge and Nodin their plans to attract talent to accomplish strategic objectives (Cox andBlake, 1991). Which could additionally improve their market knowledge,creativity, problem-solving, customer relations, performance, image and reputation(Subeliani and Tsogas, 2005). Comparatively a diverse representation at boardlevel could strengthen their effectiveness in responding to the external marketand obtaining a unique competitive advantage (Higgs, 2003).
In addition, positive justiceperception can enhance employees trust (Adams, 1965), job satisfaction (Frankl, 1992), commitment (Etzioni, 1975) and engagement (Kahn, 1990). Which can also positively impacton customer satisfaction and increase the organisation client base with thosewho value ethical work practices (Welsh, Knox and Brett, 1994). Whilst the eradicationof discrimination could enhance the harmony of society and the lives of thosewho are affected (Rowe, 2008). The potential costs of training,development and lower productivity from reduced group cohesion could deter the organisationfrom implementing new practices (Skerry, 2002).
However, according to Carroll (2000) ethical behaviour is a customer expectation, whichinfluences their decision to recommend, make future purchases or to trust the organisation’sservices (Carroll, 2000).In addition, a report by YouGov UK (2017) foundthat four out of ten people surveyed had boycotted a brand due to the companiesunfair treatment of employees.II. Proposal for change Whilst there is no universal methodsrecommended to create an equality and diversity business case (Foster and Harris, 2009).
The following five actionshave been proposed to support Trudge and Nod, as they incorporate the process forsuccessful diversity management implementation proposed by Ross and Schneider (1992). 1. Createa business caseThe business case should be contextualand identify internal and external threats and opportunities (Boxall and Purcell, 2002). Through theanalysis of data that includes the multiple stakeholders’ perspectives (Donaldson and Preston, 1995), current practices,and financial performance (Cox, 2001).Which enables the organisation to consider the urgency, risk, and benefits of anyidentified interventions for each level of the organisation (ACCA, 2014).That can increase, commitment and shared responsibility (Ross and Schneider, 1992) and reduce failure risks during the transitionfrom the current to the future practices (ACCA, 2014).
2. SharedownershipAccording to Paul (2008), the failure of most diversity management strategiesis due to a shortage of support from senior leaders, coupled with actionsthat fail to address the prevailing issues. If the business plan is to be effectivein establishing a culture of inclusion, it will need to be strategicallyintegrated and not a standalone project (Fosterand Harris, 2009). Therefore senior executive commitment needs to begained, to influence the organisation’s values, behaviour and leadership styletowards the vision of inclusion (Pitts, 2007).Which can consequently encourage the collaboration of managers towards thefacilitation of change (Hutchinson and Purcell,2003).
3. Policies and practicesThe organisation could enhance employees’perceptions of fairness, trust and a positive psychological contract (Adams, 1965; Rousseau, 2011). Through clear policiesthat recognise the value and needs of all employees whilst achieving legal compliance (Rajan and Harris, 2003). That are aligned withthe organisations strategy and integrated through processes (Armstrong, 2016)which support an enabling environment (Nussbaum, 1999)that promotes psychological wellbeing (Maslow, 1943).The failure of Coca-Cola’s approach to equality of opportunities, which resultedin legal action from 1500 African American employees (Cooper, 2000).Demonstrates the need for all policies and procedures to achieve felt fairnessnot just legal and business objectives (Gagnonand Nelarine, 2000). 4. Trainingand developmentWhilst one day diversity traininghas regularly been used by organisations, individual behaviours and attitudes arerarely altered by this (Rynes and Rosen, 1995).
Additionally, the ability of leaders to successfully manage diversity is imperative (Maxwell, Blair and McDougall, 2001), however,they often lack confidence in this area (Taylor,2002; Sheppard et al., 1994). Thereforeconducting a training needs assessment, could identify effective ways of developingawareness and understanding of equality and diversity (Robinson, Kulik and Pepper, 2003). Which can be incorporated withskills and behaviours training to increase teamwork, cohesion and conduciverelationships that can improve success (Richardand Johnson, 2001). 5. Monitoringand maintaining The turbulence of change in the internal and externalenvironment will require the organisation to continually adapt (Bingham, 2016).However, the datasets included in the business case, alongside the policies andprocedures, should be continually reviewed using an equality impact assessment (Acas, 2017b).
That incorporates a feedback system that supports continuous developmentthrough the consistent realignment of the people, practices, processes and strategy (Argyris, 1992). III. FurtherjustificationWhilst areport from the Department for businessinnovation and skills (2013) suggests that organisation with higher diversity,experience faster growth and profits. Comparatively, a recent survey of 10,000people has shown that 67% of those interviewed would accept a job on less payif the organisation was perceived as more ethical (Cone, 2015). In contrast, 119,000tribunal claims were filed in the U.
K. between July and September 2017, whichis the highest rise in four years equating to 64% (Ministry of Justice, 2017). According to Martin Fraser Lawyers (2016), thecompensation for particular types of discrimination has included £20,192(sexual orientation), £19,647 (Religion). In addition, £9,025 (Age), £21,729 (Disability), £14,185(Race) and £85,622 (Gender) (Martin Fraser Lawyers, 2016).Whilst it has been shown that discrimination can increasestress (Taylor and Turner, 2002) and reduceretention (Sheridan, 1992). A recent reportsuggests the combined costs of replacing an employee, including lost productivityand management time is £30,614 (HR Review, 2014). Which equates to a lossof £4.
13 billion pounds per year across all U.K. employers (HR Review, 2014).
Comparatively, stress is currently the highest cause of long-term absence inthe U.K. costing employers an average of £522.00 per year for each employee (CIPD, 2016). Whilst the EqualityAct 2010, requires employers to protect specified groups of employees from unlawfuldiscrimination (Acas, 2017a).
In addition, the Healthand safety at work Act 1974 requires employers to protect all employees’ health (HSWA, 1974). Furthermore,the Law Society’s solicitor’s regulation authority Code of conduct 2011 (SRA , 2018). States that equalityof opportunity and diversity must be encouraged in law firms and unlawfuldiscrimination should be prevented (SRA, 2018).Failure to comply with these regulations can result in fines, restriction or removalof the company’s practicing licence (SRA, 2018b).