This articleby________________, introduces us to international law, its beginnings and whendid everyone started to take it seriously which was around the same time theformation of the UN in 1945.
What followed was formations of Internationalorganizations and different agreements between them to help revamp the wayinternational law worked to address global concerns. One of the major amendswas the allowance to not only protect the “states’ rights but the induvial”person rights as well. Till the formation of UN international law wasconsidered to only manage for the states alone.
It took some of the horrificmeasures taken by the Nazi Concentration camps during WWII for the rest of thePeople at the international Helm to realize that rules are applicable for individualsas well. And to have a law means punishing the offenders of the law which leadto the formation of International Military Tribunal at Nuremberg to punish theNazis. Nuremberg was an acknowledgement that the Individual human rights cannotbe left at the mercy of the states hand.At the endof WWII it provoked people at the helm to make an effort in improving therelations between all the states. And were so determined to never see anotherwar ever again, leading to form 4 guiding principles to maintain internationalpeace and develop better relations between nations.
The UN with its 192 memberstill 2009 maintained the common goals. Each Member gets their own vote in theUN General Assembly hence putting everyone at the same mark. Although UN mightnot have done much single handadely to avoid a WWIII, they have been able tomaintain the role of the treaties amongst the international community. TheOttawa Treaty which bans the use of landmines, specifically antipersonnel minesmade a rule to destroy most of the mines except keeping a few for training purposes.As of 2009 158 countries signed they treaty while 37 of them did not show theirconsent in signing it. Amongst the 37 the major 4 being US, India, Russia,China.
US citing defensive needs because of the “demilitarized Zone” betweenNorth and South Korea, While India deeming it necessary to prevent andinfiltration along the Jammu and Kashmir states. Diana, Princess of wales andLloyd Axworthy former Canadian Foreign minister are credited in creation ofthis treaty.Internationallaw since 1945 was described as a complex binding of pacts, trying to fill gapswhen a state government is unsure. The pacts address Various Laws of Sea, War, internationalhumanitarian, Trade, intellectual property, International Criminal. The pactsigned by the nation makes sure that the principles are executed properly.
As thetreaties grew the need to understanding and clarifying of the rules andprinciples of the international law was felt. As sometimes the application tosome of the disputed were not clearly defined, hence in 1945 the Internationalcourt of justice was formed helping shape the law. The ICJ also refers to itsprevious decisions to justify new rulings.With the UNand ICJ, Pact were an effective tool to bring note to concerning changes ofsociety. And nations were encouraged for arms control and disarmament.Following which helped form a pact to control and limit nuclear weapons, resultof which in 2002 number of nuclear warhead to be deployed reduced drasticallybetween US and Russia.Following the Nuremberg humans rights violation, pactsupporters became mindful and it prompted the universal declaration of humanrights in 1948. Dozens of human rights conventions community’s commitment tohuman right but still pose enforcement problems.
Recent times the focus shiftedto Terrorism and war crimes, following the 9/11 incident more effectivePunishments were needed.64 Years have passed since the UN was formed, thoughenforcements problem still ensue but it still has helped nations reached middle ground on legal issues.