Unit 7 Exercise 1

Crosstalk- unwanted signals in a communication channel (as in a telephone, radio, or computer) caused by transference of energy from another circuit (as by leakage or coupling) Waveguides- a device (as a duct, coaxial cable, or glass fiber) designed to confine and direct the propagation of electromagnetic waves FTTH- the installation and use of optical fiber from a central point directly to individual buildings such as residences, apartment buildings and businesses to provide unprecedented high-speed Internet access.

Simplex- allowing telecommunication in only one direction Half-Duplex- the transmission of data in just one direction at a time Full-Duplex- Refers to the transmission of data in two directions simultaneously Photo-diode- A light-activated semiconductor device that allows current to flow in only one direction.

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Amplitude Modulation- modulation of the amplitude of a radio carrier wave in accordance with the strength of the audio or other signal Analog Transmission- a transmission method of conveying voice, data, image, signal or video information using a continuous signal which varies in amplitude, phase, or some other property in proportion to that of a variable Digital Transmission- Transmission of video, voice and other data first encoded into binary values and then transmitted as electrical pulses.

Sample Rate- The number of times an analog signal is measured (sampled) per second Electromagnetic waves- a wave produced by the acceleration of an electric charge and propagated by the periodic variation of intensities of, usually, perpendicular electric and magnetic fields.

Refraction- deflection from a straight path undergone by a light ray or energy wave in passing obliquely from one medium (as air) into another (as glass) in which its velocity is different Medium- a substance regarded as the means of transmission of a force or effect Total Internal Reflection- the complete reflection of a light ray at the boundary of two media, when the ray is in the medium with greater refractive index Fresnel Reflection- the reflection of a portion of incident light at a discrete interface between two media having different refractive indices, occurs at the air-glass interfaces at the entrance and exit ends of an optical fiber. Tensile Strength- a measure of the ability of a material to withstand a longitudinal stress, expressed as the greatest stress that the material can stand without breaking Dispersion- Separation of a complex wave into its component parts according to a given characteristic, such as frequency or wavelength.

Bandwidth- often used as a synonym for data transfer rate, In electronic communication, the width of the range (or band) of frequencies that an electronic signal uses on a given transmission medium Polarity- the particular state either positive or negative with reference to the two poles or to electrification Absorption- a reduction of the intensity of any form of radiated energy as a result of energy conversion in a medium, such as the conversion of sound energy into heat Scattering- the random change in direction of the particles constituting a beam or wave front due to collision with particles of the medium traversed Equilibrium Mode Distribution- That condition in a multimode fiber wherein after propagation has taken place for a certain distance, called the “equilibrium length,” the relative power distribution among modes becomes statistically constant and remains so for the course of further propagation down the fiber Personal Protective Equipment- specialized clothing or equipment worn by employees for protection against health and safety hazards. Good Work Habits- Habits that aid people in becoming successful, while following codes and standards.

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