UNIVERSITY they are not required. In addition to

UNIVERSITY OFAGRICULTURE, FAISALABADFACULTY OFAGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGYDEPARTMENT OFFARM MACHINERY AND POWERSynopsis for M.Sc. (Hons.) AgriculturalEngineering TITLE: Design, construction and performance evaluation of a Hand Pulledmechanical weeder (cone weeder) for paddy soil Nameof the Student               :           Shahbaz HussainRegistrationNo.

                      :           2012-ag-3770Nameof the Supervisor          :           Engr.Azlan Zahid ABSTRACTUNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE, FAISALABADDepartment of FARM MACHINERY AND POWERSynopsis for M.Sc. (Hons.) Degree in Agricultural Engineering Title: Design,Development and performance evaluationof a hand pulled mechanical weeder ( cono weeder) for paddy soil. Date of Admission                :           September,2016Date of Initiation                   :           December,2017Probable Duration                 :           6months  Supervisory Committee:1. Dr.

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Anjum Munir                :            (Chairman)2. Dr. Abdual Ghafoor            :            (Member)3. Dr. Shakeel Anjum    :   (Member)         CHAPTERIINTRODUCTION Pakistan is an agriculture country and it is the backbone ofnational economy. It contributes a major role in providing food, supplying rawmaterials,in making building structures, shelters and earning a foreignexchange to employing a large portion of population (Afzaland Ahmed.2009).

Pakistan is one of the world’s largest producer andsuppliers of food and crops according to different source i.e sugar cane,wheat, rice etc.Pakistan is famed for its “Basmati Rice” the country’s majoragriculture export product (Akram, 2009). Pakistanis the 5th largest producer and 3rd largest exporter ofraw cotton in the world and provide livelihood more than 50 Billion people (Morris,1989).Weeds are unwanted plants growing where they are notrequired. In addition to the other biotic and abiotic constraints weeds exert asignificant effect on the potential yield of major crops (Siddiqui et al., 2010; Tanveer et al., 2015).

Weedswhen interfering with the cropping system it reduces the plant growth byreducing light, space, nutrients, Carbon dioxide (CO2) thus resultsin less crop production and quality (Khan et al.,2013). Weeds inflict about 20-30% of yield losses in different crops ofPakistan (Hussain et al., 2007). In comparisonwith global, average weed-caused crop yield in Pakistan is 11.5% but globalaverage is 9.5% (Rabbani et al., 2013).

Thismay loss a million dollar per annum (saeed et al.,2010a).Weed can cause several damages to farming inputs, includesdecrease of crop yields, increase plant pest and diseases, increase inirrigation cost and decrease in land value. Almost 50-70% reduction is due topoor weed control.

In Pakistan poor weed control leads to uninterrupted weedgrowth, which causes a severe annual losses.Managementof weeds is an important portion of production techniques as removal of weedsis expensive and hard to attain (Olukunle andOguntunde, 2006). Manual, mechanical and chemical method arecommonly employed for the control of harmful and fast-growing weed species (Rabbani et al., 2013). However, increasing laborshortages, high wages, mismanagement, weather condition, unavailability ofinputs available to farmer causes effective and timely management of weeds (Kholiq et al., 2011, 2013b). Another concern is thatwhen herbicides may provide to control the weed.

Herbicide residuals canpollute the crop products and also the soil, thus harmful for human and theenvironment (Riaz et al., 2007). Severalnon-chemical approaches, such as use of crop interference, diversity, handweeding and selective tillage operation were widely employed for weed controlin many cropping system before applying herbicides (Parish,1990; and janke, 1990; Anderson, 2015). Weeds are removed by tools suchas blade and hoe requires high drudgery, time overwhelming and high labor.Manual weeding requires a immense labor force and report for about 25% of thetotal labor requirement which is usually 900-1200 man-hours/hectare (Nagg and Dutt 1979). Weeding and tillage is normallydone 15-20 days after sowing.

The weed should controlled at their early stage.Rice and Groundnut are very sensitive to weed as declared by (Goel, et al 2008). As a solution to these problems,mechanical weeder was developed and designed (H.

S.Srindhar.2007). Utilization of hand tool technology is one of the major causes ofpoverty in the  villages. Nganilwa et al. (2003) declare that a farmer onlyusing hand hoe for weeding. More than 3000 species of weed have been found allover the world.

The cost of weed management is large; however the opportunitycost of weed management is higher. Rangasamy et al.(1993) reported that one third of the total cost of cultivation isexpend on weeding.The method employed to remove weeds on the farm includesBurning, dehydration, manual and mechanical weeding.

In developed countrieschemical weeding is more prominent than mechanical weeding. However, when themachine having motor, it produces noise pollution and cause power loss thusrequires high maintenance. In other case, if the machine having engine to work,then it consumes more fuel. The engine speed reducing the efficiency of weedsand also heat is generated which effects the growing plants. The wider andequal spacing between the plants allows easy operation of mechanical weeder, itincorporates the weeds into the soil as a green manure.Presently there are many different designs of mechanicalweeder, motorized weeders or power weeder.

These weeders are cost effective.Mostly used weeder that are affordable for the small farmers are manual weederi.e Cono weeder. While operating the weeder some weeds left near the plants, itis removed manually.

Mechanical weeding either by hand tool or mechanicalweeders are most efficient in dry land and wet land (Naggand Dutt 1979, Gite and Yadav, 1990, Gite and Yadav, 1985). Severaltypes of cutting blades are used for manually operated weeders.Mechanical weedcontrol system is not only uproots the weeds, it is also loosen the soilsurface to improve aeration and water holding capacity of the soil.

Manualweeding is the clean process but slightly slow(Biswass, 1990).Therefore, inorder to improve the productivity per unit area of small land holdings andconsidering the financial condition of Pakistani farmers, it is vitallynecessary to have suitable agricultural equipment which farmers can use andalso allow for traditionally engaged. There is shortage of weeding machine inPakistan to eradicate the weeding problems which adversely effect the plantgrowth and the water holding capacity of soil. There is less work on the designand developing of weeder machine in Pakistan.

In order to solve the problems ofweed, I have to design a simple mechanical hand push weeder which is verysuitable for all crops especially rice crops and it is very suitable for thesmall farmers because it is less expensive and easily operated and it is alsoreduce the cost of crop production and improve the crop yield to a greatextent. However, the efficiency of work in terms of area covered, mechanicalweeder is more efficient than manual weeding. Objectives of the studyThe overall objective of the study will be design, construct and test amanually operated mechanical weeder with the traditional weeding method and tosupply best possibility for the crop to constitute itself after planting andgrow vigorously up to the time of harvesting.1)       ToDesign and fabricate a manually operated weeder2)       To testand evalute the prototype machine3)       Tocompare the machine performance with the traditional weeding method4)       And tojudge the crop yield   CHAPTER IIREVIEW OF LITERATUREWeed management is one of the major problem in Pakistan.Weed are the unwanted plants that grow everywhere or within the plants row thatreduces not only the growth of plants but also reduce the soil nutrients aswell as soil field capacity which adversely effect production efficiency.

Manualweeding is the traditional method, people also using this method today but itis time consuming, more laborious and reduce cost production. Hence,traditional method replaced by mechanical method introduce which is almostworking all over the world because it is advantageous than manual weeding. For thispurpose many weeder designs, my focus is on hand pulled manually operated mechanicalweeder because it is environment friendly and causes less noise pollution andless expensive that every small scale farmers have to be afford. Some of the literaturereview of the research papers given below:Duta et al. (2005)reported that hand weeding of rice twice at 21 and 40 DAS (days after sowing)contributed to the highest weed control efficiency and increase grain and strawyield of the rice crop.Uphoff,  (2002) reported that mechanical handweeder pruned some of the upper roots and encourage the deeper root growth.Randriamiharisoa, (2002)noticed that mechanical weeding using rotating hoe with small toothed wheelincrease the soil pores so that microbes and roots could more easily gainaccess to oxygen and also significantly increase the tiller production.

Binni et al. (2016).Studied a complete survey on performance evaluation of different types ofweeder. Weeders are the unwanted plants growing between the crops row.

Traditional method to remove weeds are manually as well as bullock operatedequipment’s which causes damage of main crops. More than 33% of cost spend onthe weeding operation rather than cultivation. Several losses due to weeds.Weeding control is done by: mechanical weeding, flaming, thermal weeding,chemical control, biological control and by farming patterns. This review papercarrying out the performance evaluation of different types of weeders i.emanually operated and power operated which will help to minimize working labor,time consuming and to reduce labor cost. Smith et al. (2015).

Studiedthe recent automated weeding machines use cameras to notice plants, and acomputer to procedure the duplicate and compute which plants to preserve andwhich to eliminate and then to stimulate kill mechanism. Two machines used in thisstudy included the Robovator, Frank Poulsen Engineering, Denmark and SteketeeIC Weeder, the Netherlands. They can cultivate the seedline and eliminatingweeds generally misused by traditional cultivation.

The Robovator and Steketee.Both machines use a split blade that ends in the seedline to remove undesirableplants and unlocks round the wanted ‘keeper’ plants leaving a landmass of unculturedsoil. Both machines were initially considered for use in transplanted crops anduse a camera to sense the larger crop plants and control the opening andclosing of the knife-edges. In three of the assessments the machines were used subsequentthinning of the lettuce. On average, there is a tendency that the roboticweeders reduced the position of lettuce by 5.6%. This may be due to incidental harmfrom the knives opening or closing at the wrong time. This type of impairmentcan be managed by changes in the machine that affect the forcefulness of theblades.

Mechanical weeders eliminate 51.4% weed problems in the seedlines andreduced follow up hand weeding by 37.1%. Weeds removed by mechanical techniqueshas developed vastly over the last decades, and in these studies, mechanicalweeding machine run a useful level of weed control and to minimize amount oftime to removes all the weeds from lettuce production fields.Mane Deshmukh Vijay et al., 2016worked on the agricultural equipment that is for small scale farmers, thisequipment is known as weeder cycle.

He studies the area of india where most ofthe peoples are farmer and use maximum human power for fieldwork but now-a-daysavailability of workers are less for field work so we must design rotoradjustment cycle. Using inverter software to design weeder cycle and theseweeder cycle will eradicate the grass between crop rows. Therefore, lessworkers required for complex work in less time and less time consuming.

          Mohammad Reza Alizadeh 2011. Studied the fieldperformance of four types of mechanical weeder i.e. single row conical weeder,rotary weeder, two rows conical weeder and power weeder and then compare allthese weeders with the hand weeding method. Hashemi and Hybrid separately arethe local and improved rice varieties. He transplanted these two varieties andresult will exposed that among all the four weeders, power weeder has highestweeding efficiency as compare to remaining weeders. When power weeder comparewith the hand weeding method, the efficiency of power weeder much greater thanhand weeding method.

So, among the tested weeders, he suggested that powerweeder showed a proper performance in the field.S. Madhusudhana et al., 2015.Studied that controlling weed is one of the major problem that reduce thefarmer’s interest towards continuous cultivation. Severe shortage of labor,decreasing cost per acre of cultivation and financial hindrance are some of thekey factors which reduce the farmers confidence towards continuing cultivation.

Hence, mechanical weeder is more suitable for weed removal to reduce laborforce. The aim of the work is to design and developed power weeder to providegood opportunity for crops to vigorously up to the time of harvesting. Power weederis driven by petrol engine which rotates the blades to cut the weeds. This methodis faster and less laborious, less time consuming than traditional method. Thisoperation is very simple and easily operated by human.

 M.G.Jadhav, Prof.J.K.Sawale 2016.

Suggest a model of manually operated multi-nozzle sprayer with mechanicalweeder rendering to crop which will give best result in less time. This paper appearsto design such a flexible sprayer and weeder because farmers use traditional waysthat is spray carry on knapsack and weeding is done by bulls, which becomestime wasting and inflated. So, this problem is removed by multi-nozzlepesticides sprayer and weeder machine.                   Olaoye, J. O. and T.

A. Adekanye 2005,studied that weed regulate is one of the most problematic task in agriculturethat relates with the agricultural production. Chemical method is veryprominent method to control weeds but it has some drawbacks i.e. it is adverselyaffect the environment and dangerous for living habitats(insects) as well asgrazing animals.

So, farmer consider mechanical method of weed control. Manual weedingis laborious task. The use of mechanical weeder reduces labor force and reduceweed removal cost. This will results increase in production. Therefore, rotary powerweeder developed. Results of performance evaluation showed that field capacityand weeding efficiency of rotary weeder is more efficient than manual weedingmethod.J.K.

Kouwenhoven 1996,studied the potency of intra-row weed control by tactile dig, brushes andweeder harrows in combination with a drill planting system and paper pots. Useof tactile hoe and brushes were effective, it reduces the number of herbicidesabout 10% needed to the plant used by full width spraying. This results highcosts and low capacity, but they may be quite profitable for organic farmers.In case of weeder harrow, the capacity is high. Yield losses resulting fromincreased soil concretion caused by mechanical weed control with a lighttractor in place of chemical weed control appear to be insignificant.Sylvestre Gongotchame et al.,2014 studied the suitability of six mechanical weedes in benin. Total157 farmers including males and females tested the mechanical weeders, arrangedthem in a sequence of preference and then compared it with the farmer’s ownweed management measures.

Ring hoe arranged at the highest rank because 97%farmers preferred the ring hoe by hand or traditional hoe. This method iseasily operated and highly efficient and it is preferred in relatively highweed pressure. Straight-Spike weeder preferred in area where weed pressure isless. Mechanical weeder can offer effective approach for weed management,especially for small scale farmers which only focused on rice cultivation. Anddifferent types of weeders introduced according to the water level and waterregimes.J.Albertson et al., 2016.

Studied the effects of mechanicalweed controls combined with herbicide treatment on the willow grown that issensitive to weed competition. This study compares that practice with two mechanicalsi.e.

row crop cultivator (RC) and row crop cultivator with torsion weeder (RCT)and two cultural treatments, cover crop (CC) and cut cover crop (CCC) tocontrol weeds. At harvesting time (RCT) treatment had produced 27% more plantmaterials and animal waste used as fuel than the (RC) treatment. All thetreatment and cultivars combination gave a positive financial return thus thisstudy suggests that without using chemical sprays, it is possible to establisha willow short rotation coppice plantation which is economically viable.N.D.

Tillet et al., 2007. Studied mechanical within-row weedcontrol for transplanted crops using computer vision. It is an efficient methodof removing weeds between the crop rows.

Hand labor is quite laborious toremove weeds within rows. A Computer Vision system determined the stage ofapproaching plants and that information related to measured disc rotation to determinethe stage error between next plant and disc cut-out.                         CHAPTER IIIMATERIAL AND METHODOLY I am going to design manuallyoperated hand pull mechanical weederResearch area: My researcharea will be university of agriculture faisalabadDuration of Research: myresearch duration will be 6 months               CHAPTER IVREFERENCES Abbas, M.A., 2006. General agriculture Emporium Publishers, Lahore, Pakistan. Hafiz H.A, Arslan M.

P, Saima H.,2016. Weed management using crop competition in Pakistan, a review. Lawson Smith, Nurseryman., A mechanical means of Riding and pulling weeds Rayanier Incorporated Glenville Nursery, Glenville,Ga. Njoku, P.C.

1996. The role of Universities of Agriculture Appropriate man power Development for weed management in Agriculture. Nigerian Journal of weed science. Vol.

9,65. Pullen, D.W.M and P.A. Cowell. 1997. An evaluation of the performance of mechanical weeding mechanism for use in high speed inter-row weeding of arable crops, Journal of Agricultural Engineering Research, 67: 27-34.

I.M.Binni Richard Smith, Farm Advisor and Tricia Love, Research Assistant. Sept, 2015.

Evaluation of Mechanical Weeders for Weed Removal and Crop Safety in Lettuce Production University of California Cooperative Extension, Monterey County Richard Mane Deshmukh Vijay, Bhoir Nilesh, Ghade Tushar, Patange Anand.  March, 2016. Design And Fabrication Of Agriculture Weeder. International Journal Of Innovations In Engineering Research And Technology IJIERT ISSN: 2394-3696 Volume 3, Issue3, R. Yadav and S.

Pund  “Development and Ergonomic Evaluation of Manual Weeder”. Agricultural Engineering International: the CIGR Ejournal. Manuscript PM 07 022.

Vol. IX. October, 2007. Mohammad Reza Alizadeh, 28 September, 2011.

Field performance evaluation of mechanical weeders in the paddy field. Department of Agricultural Engineering, the Rice Research Institute of Iran (RRII) Vol. 6(25), pp. 5427-5434. S. Madhusudhana, D.

Kanakaraja, A. Srinivas, M.FayazHussainBaig  February 2015 Development Of Double Wheeled Multipurpose Weed Remover, International Journal of Engineering Technology, Management and Applied Sciences  Volume 3 Issue 2. M.G.Jadhav, Prof.J.

K.Sawale December, 2016. Design and Fabrication of Manually Operated Weeder with Pesticides Sprayer, Department of Mechanical Engineering, MGM’s COE, Nanded, Maharashtra, India. Volume: 03 Issue: 12. Olaoye, J.

O. and T. A. Adekanye 2005, Development and Evaluation of a rotary power weeder, Department of Agricultural and Biosysytems Engineering, University of Ilorin. J.K.Kouwenhoven, August, 1996.

Intra-row mechanical weed control-possibilities and problem. Wageningen Agricultural University, Tillage laboratory, Diedenweg 20, 6703 GW Wageningen, Netherlands.