University of Stavanger TheNorwegian School of Hotel Management MR220 Advanced TourismTheoryCandidate Number: 1431″Tourist Experience” Tourismis a very interesting topic – there is a very thin line between someone who isa tourist and someone who is not and there are many other tourist types in themiddle (Cohen, 1974, p.547).
There are many ways to explain who/what is atourist, some of them suggest that a tourist is a person that travelstemporarily but someone who still has a permanent residence, even during thetrip, somewhere on the globe which he can go back to whenever he wants (Cohen,1974, p.531). Some more theories suggest that a tourist is simply someone on atour, a person on a distant expedition, person on a one-time trip, a person whois just traveling with no specific purpose, ex. Business, etc. (Cohen, 1974, p.532)or just a traveler who is traveling voluntarily (Cohen, 1974, p.531).
Inthis paper, more emphasis would be given on tourist experience influenced bysocial control and tourist experience when one’s holiday destination isperceived as a total institution.Tourist experienceQuanand Wang (2004) talked about two scholarly definitions and put a touristexperience into two approaches:1. Asocial science approach where they emphasized on a tourist’s peak experience – mostlycovers the sightseeing attractions and being motivated for tourism – bit differentfrom daily life rituals (Quan & Wang, 2004, p.298), and2. Marketing/managementbased on where the tourist is located/living, also, importance is also given totypical consumer expectations from a leisure product such as transportation,living place, food servings and other relative services (Quan & Wang, 2004,p.299)Althoughmany scholars and professionals have explained tourist experience in manydifferent ways, most of them agree on tourist experience mainly focusing on thecustomer’s experience as an ongoing process of work that gives some meaning tothe individual (Zatori, 2013, p. 32).Touristexperience has kept on changing from the 18th century and ahead inthe journey of discovering more, going to places where no man has been to andovercoming one’s fear as explained under accelerated sublime.
(Bell &Lyall, 2002, p.22-24) The Accelerated SublimeEcotourismand adventure tourism are such fields of tourist experience that makes atraveler (re)live the sublime. People that choose such type of tourism nolonger just wander around the landscape, but accelerate through them withbarely a tunnel vision through a thoroughly carved space, viewing suchlandscapes while moving in an accelerated manner where only a video camera wouldbe able to capture the experience in its full abyss, for example, white waterrafting, paragliding etc.
(Bell & Lyall, 2002, p.21). Overgoing such daringexperiences, travelers have not only discovered, experienced and demonstratedtheir adventures and spirit that cannot be defeated, but they also have been showingtheir skills as decent consumers of traveling and leisure commodity in the late20th and 21st century (Bell & Lyall, 2002, p.22). Butit wasn’t always like that.Inthe eighteenth century and prior to that, one remained at the base of a sublimeand gazed toward the possessed and perilous habitation of the Gods.
In anycase, as time passed, sublime fell on its side. It turned into only a matter ifdistance and journey. In the nineteenth century, with innovation andindustrialization peaking individuals accomplished manufactured magnificence:the railroad cuttings, passages and viaducts bravely vanquished the mountains,testing the old attitude of a tourist (Bell & Lyall, 2002, p.
22).ClaudiaBell and John Lyall mention Thomas Mann claiming that modern travelers love thenatural wonders of the earth and definitely the places that are still notdiscovered by man which still remain a mystery and open for every enthusiast toexplore, such as potholes and caves and the deep bottom of the ocean (Bell , 2002, p.23).Nowadays,in the 21st century, a massive amount of people live their lives andeven travel around the world without even getting in touch with the wildlife. Inthis new world we are all one some ways strangers to each other and at the sametime accommodated. (Bell & Lyall, 2002, p.
24).Creativebusiness-minded people with the mindset of capitalizing the travel experiencetry to make new ways to pump up the adventurous travelers (Bell & Lyall,2002, p.22).Tomake progress in this business, only taking guests to take a gander at heavenlynature might be deficient. Inventive business visionaries devise novel types ofphysical interests in the scene. For instance, by increasing the scale and threat,the well geared voyagers experience the immense sublime. A fifteen-minutestroll in the alpine of New Zealand transforms into a half day excursion forthe excited tourist (Bell & Lyall, 2002, p.26).
“Weare consumers of the culturally constructed hyper-sublime” – Bell & Lyall,2002, p.27.Adventurousactivities pump up the adrenaline way higher than one’s daily life routines;tourists feel the scenery approaching straight to their faces like they’ve neverexperienced before (Bell & Lyall, 2002, p.27).
Adventuretourism, as well as the fascinating family tourism experience adds to thejourney to satisfy the need to gather stories for one’s wistfulness, similarlyas one takes photos of their kids, the house or the wonderful moments thatfollow. In the present atmosphere of individualistic approach to most of thescenarios, whoever travels the most can compete with other fellow travelers intouristic experiences (Bell & Lyall, 2002, p.34).Withthat being said, to make one’s experience more organized, guidebooks somewhatstreamline one’s tourist experience with its information (Dann, 1996, p.
85).Tourist experience influenced bySocial ControlTouristexperience is impacted by guidebooks in a substantial scale with its capacityto control the two collectors and referents by its content (Dann, 1996, p.84). Dannemphasizes on Boorstin’s point stating that different sights and happenings asportrayed by the guidebooks were controlledas much as they depended on the expected desires of the traveler (Dann, 1996,p.85).”Imperiallyimplicated in a closed circuit which is formed by obligatory stops in placesconsecrated by guidebooks” – Cassou, (1967:29) Dictationsin the guidebook have been said to be “molding tourists’ expectations” byJafari and Gardener (1991:20-1, 30) as stated by Dann (1996).
Tourist andtourist experience is adapted and modified by their guidebook, to visit certainspots and to experience them on the way incited by advertising. As such, thefeeling of commitment is viable just to the degree that it reflects genuine ormade-up desires in the subject. Incredible and helpless tourist spots movetowards becoming havens to the travelers which totally should be seen beforeone can unwind, take a breath or continue to new destinations. (Dann, 1996, p.85)Regardlessof the statements above, Dann notices Hoggart promoting a kind of anti-tourismby advising travelers to maintain a strategic distance from the well-knownlandmarks and explore the less popular sights instead, perhaps set up a newto-do list of places to discover and absorb a different tourist experience (Dann,1996, p.87).Tourist experience influenced bySocial Control in Hotels and ResortsDannmentions Wood (1994) to be one of the very few researchers who endeavored asociological treatment of touristic accommodations saying that hotels are thefundamental gurus of social control, thus, affecting tourist experience, theywork in a fashion to implement rules or laws, both holding back and empoweringhuman activity as per social norms (Dann, 1996, p.
88).Givingan example of Britain using Wood’s analysis Dann explains that in the mid-1900s,local travelers could maintain a strategic distance from the limitations of thehotels and guest houses by taking an excursion to the holiday camps, which,before the World War 1, were only an arrangement of tents until Billy Butlin,in 1936 opened his first extravagant holiday camp in Skegness concentrating onserving families (Dann, 1996, p.89), with great quality of nourishment,entertainment and sanitation reasoning with other holiday-makers that theyshould be more organized, thus, introducing the renowned “Redcoats” –representatives who might lead, help, clarify and assist the visitors (Dann,1996, p.89). It is also mentioned that greetings such as ‘Morning you happycampers’ and ‘we know where you’re going’ are a reference to the heavily organizedworld of holiday camps influence a tourist’s experience ever since 1936 (Dann, 2000,p.90).
Butlin’scamps, in that time, could likewise be alluded as concentration camps.Detecting this inferred lack of freedom, organizations now have dropped theterm ‘camp’ and have supplanted the term with ‘center’, ‘village’ or ‘holidayworld’ (Dann, 1996, p.89).Onthe contrary, Dann mentions Club Mediterranee (Club Med) as a working classEuropean adaptation of the holiday camp, maybe even more developed than aholiday camp. Despite the fact that it concentrates on providing services moreto singles (Dann, 1996, p.89).Dannshowcases Carol Barden’s (1994) observations on the positives and negatives ofClub Med considering the degree of control in the establishment.
Barden saysthat the club is really entertaining with a fixed one-time fee of $240 a nightbut including interiors depicting Polynesian culture of traditions providing aprison-like tourist experience. (Dann, 1996, p.90).
With that being said healso mentions MacCannell describing resorts as ‘factories of the tourismindustry’ referring to such destinations imprisoning visitors by making theirtrips to the outside world impossible or impossibly expensive for Galapagos islands(Dann, 1996, p.92) as well as confining the tourist in an organized coach tour isolatingthem within a tour bus and not letting them feel the essence of India as thereal tourist experience would rather come from the streets, in shorter words,encapsulating the tourists and turning them into a person who looks rather thana person who becomes a part of the culture, affecting their tourist experience (Dann, 1996, p.95)Tourist experience influenced bySocial Control for the elderlyDannalso talks about La Paloma Blanca, Mallorca treating the elderly in a manner ofa total institute taking in thought Erving Goffman’s (1973) idea of aninstitution being a position of habitation and work where an extensive numberof like-arranged people, cut off from a wider society for an appreciabletimeframe, together lead an enclosed, formally directed round of life (Dann,2000, p.84) where he points out a sharp division that exists amongst staff andprisoners (travelers) (Dann, 2000, p.89).
The general speculation is that theseparation and social rejection experienced by the elderly because of their agein their home condition is some way or another persisted into the holidaysetting (Dann, 2000, p.83), hence, totally changing one’s tourist experienceand turning their holiday as more of an over paid temporary retirement home ora mental hospital (Dann, 2000, p.84)Dannspecifies a few points recognized by Goffman related with such institutionsinfluencing one’s tourist experience, for example, 1. Sleeping under a similar authority insimilar location 2. Submission to a general reasonable planwhich is firmly scheduled3. Division amongst staff and prisoners (guests)4.
Wearing uniforms5. Requiring authorization to do specialactivities (Dann, 2000, p.84) Dannalso specifies Cohen’s (1972) perception of when a tourist goes to continentsor countries like India, Africa and so forth, organizations keep travelers in an”environmental bubble” – a safe zone, shielding the tourist fromoutside risks that hide past the limits of the hotel walls. Maybe that is onereason why trip organizers in their prep-talk with elderly holiday makersemphasize on the dangers related with wandering out alone, the risks of opentransport, encounters with street thugs, and so on. (Dann, 2000, p.85) Subsequently,influencing one’s tourist experience by bringing discipline to the holidayenvironment through a multiple rule structure that works in different ways onvarious levels within the holiday confinements/institutions (Dann, 2000, p.86)ConclusionTouristexperience is a social science approach emphasized on a tourist’s peakexperience (Quan & Wang, 2004, p.
298), and/or Marketing/management based onwhere the tourist’s location which can be affected by social controlimplemented by guidebooks in a substantial scale with its capacity to controlthe two collectors and referents by its content (Dann, 1996, p.84) and hotelsbeing the fundamental gurus of social control by working in a fashion toimplement rules or laws, both holding back and empowering human activity as persocial norms (Dann, 1996, p.88). Organizations keep travelers in an”environmental bubble” – a safe zone, shielding the tourist fromoutside risks that hide past the limits of the hotel walls and emphasize on thedangers related with wandering out alone, the risks of open transport,encounters with street thugs, and so on (Dann, 2000, p.85) which may or may notbe helpful to the tourists depending on their reason of travel whether it is to discover the undiscovered (Bell , 2002, p.23) or to simply (re)live the sublime (Bell & Lyall, 2002,p.21).