Part 1: Indicate two sociological theories that can be used to assist your apprehension of the service users ‘ state of affairs
In taking the clip to detect how sociological and psychological influences may impact on a service user or client group, the societal worker can stay aware of the wider context of a state of affairs and non merely take what she sees at face value. This cognition allows the societal worker to stay nonsubjective and to do informed determinations in order to keep professionalism in her work. By using Sociological and Psychological theory to the ‘Bertram ‘s ‘ instance survey I aim to research the wider societal context, outside influence and psychological deductions from the past and present. Through this geographic expedition I will bring out the varying point of views and sometimes contradictory nature of these theories. To derive a Sociological position on the instance survey I will be using Functionalist and Feminist theories. I will be able to size up the Bertram ‘s current state of affairs and use the theory in order to derive a wider apprehension of the societal context. In order to keep a balanced point of view, Psychodynamic theory and Maslow ‘s hierarchy will enable me to see the psychological impact with a focal point on human and emotional development.
By analyzing a state of affairs from a Sociological position we can take into history how assorted facets such as category, societal construction, faith, disablement can impact people from a wider societal context. This is indispensable in deriving a holistic image the state of affairs.
By using a Macro theory to the instance scenario it allows us to look at the big graduated table characteristics of society and how single actions affect society as a whole and frailty versa. Functionalism will enable me to contemplate the construction of society and how the Bertram ‘s tantrum within that construction. Functionalist theoreticians regard society as a system with meshing parts. It is believed that each portion needs to work efficaciously in order for society, as a system, to work as a whole. It is frequently rationalised utilizing biological analogy. The societal function of persons is an built-in portion of the theory. Each individual is thought to hold their single function to play within society. From a functionalist position it is really clear that Mrs Bertram is non carry throughing her function as a married woman. Due to her alzemers she is unable to transport out the responsibilities that would hold been expected of her. Durkheim believed that everyone had their topographic point, and a adult female ‘s topographic point was in the place. In the context of the 40 ‘s, 50 ‘s when Functionalism was at its extremum, this point of view would non hold been uncommon, if a small out-dated by today ‘s criterions. None the less, it is non through pick that she has become dysfunctional within society. She has legitimate claim for non being able to transport out her social function and Functionalism would automatically see her return on the ‘sick function ‘ . This would enable her to map once more within the system under a different pretense.
It could besides be observed that Mr Bertram is a dysfunctional member of society. With his foolhardy behavior, his hideous disbursement, and the deficiency of attention for his married woman ‘s basic needs he is no longer carry throughing his function of hubby. A chief advocate of Functionalism was Emile Durkheim ( 1858-1917 ) . He saw matrimonial vows as duties. “ When I perform my responsibilities as a brother, a hubby or a citizen and transport out the committednesss I have entered into, I fulfil duties which are defined in jurisprudence and usage which are external to myself and my actions ” ( Durkheim, 1982 ) . He believed that if a member of society was deemed as dysfunctional, so he was considered to be a aberrant member of society. Deviance occurs when people are non working right, harmonizing to the ‘norm ‘ . This could be through offense, or anything which affects their ability to transport out their social function. Deviance needs to be controlled or managed. If it was established that Mr Bertram was in fact pervert so he may necessitate some persuading that by supplying the attention and attending that his married woman needs his married woman would non be removed from the state of affairs. Through this declaration, hence, they would both be able to work suitably.
It could be observed that Mr Bertram had an intoxicant dependence. If this was established so Mr Bertram excessively may take on the ‘sick function ‘ . In which instance a different method for deciding the issues within the house would necessitate to be adopted. Talcott Parsons ( 1902-1979 ) believed that illness was a societal construct instead than a biological construct. So being sick meant moving in different, aberrant ways to the norm. Being ill was hence a signifier of societal function ( Haralambos and Holborn, 2004 ) . Parsons believed the rights of a ill individual to be freedom from normal societal duties, the right to be looked after and blamed for their societal aberrance every bit long as they were truly ill. Duties of a individual playing the ‘sick function ‘ would be to understand that they have to ‘get good ‘ every bit shortly as possible in order to go on their normal map and in order to make this they must have professional aid. Mr Bertram ‘s status would necessitate to be treated or managed in order to enable him to work once more. In that instance Mr and Mrs Bertram would be able to remain at place under intervention and the issues about attention could be dealt with consequently. He would no longer be considered aberrant member of society. A unfavorable judgment of the ‘sick function ‘ would be that it is really hard to use to long term unwellness like that of Mrs Bertram. It is built on the premise that the individual addition aid in order to derive map. This would non be possible for Mrs Bertram.
From a Extremist Feminist position it could be observed that Mrs Bertram has been oppressed by her hubby. Through her devotedness and his laterality she has succumb to subordination. Extremist Feminists use the patriarchal societal system as a construct to explicate gender inequality. Patriarchy is the laterality of work forces over adult females in society. They view work forces as responsible for the development of adult females from which they benefit greatly, through free domestic labor, sexual responsibilities and so on. The instance survey describes how Mrs Bertram was swept off of her pess and wholly devoted to Mr Bertram. In their current state of affairs, Mrs Bertram is at place in squalled conditions and urgently in demand of aid. Mr Bertram is avoiding the state of affairs by utilizing diversionary maneuver, egotistically seeking societal activity and pleasance through drink. This farther increases her subjugation as she is to the full dependent on her hubby to supply the attention and attending which she is urgently in demand of.
“ Shulamith Firestone, an early extremist women’s rightist author argues that work forces control adult females ‘s functions in re-production and kid bearing. Because adult females are biologically able to give birth to kids, they become more dependent materially on work forces for protection and support ” ( Giddens, 2006 ) . Feminists could reason that for this ground Mrs Bertram has become vulnerable within her scene and merely accepts this manner of life. Jessie Bernard argued that “ Men need matrimony more than adult females ” ( pg 208 Gender ) . Possibly this trust on the domestic labor, comfort and sexual responsibilities of a married woman, which has been lost my Mr Bertram through his married woman ‘s status is imputing to his behavior. Mrs Bertram is no longer carry throughing her responsibilities as a married woman and this could be interrupting his modus operandi. It would look that Mr Bertram has ne’er had to command the family, take attention of his married woman or fundss, and may miss the ability or may merely see it beneath him. It could impact his maleness to hold to transport out such jobs and responsibilities believed to be portion of a adult female ‘s function. This may besides be the ground why he is loath to accept aid with the state of affairs. He may experience he is being barraged and dictated to by his measure girls which may be ensuing in a greater rebelliousness. It is non clear from the instance survey, the nature of their relationship either. He may experience that household and professionals are sabotaging his authorization as caput of the family. Mr Bertram may be counterbalancing for his deficiency of maleness at place, by utilizing his societal visual aspect, bluster, imbibing and rebelliousness. This clip off from the house for him may reaffirm his function as a dominant male within society whilst his dominant function as a adult male disappears at place. He no longer has bid over his married woman, no longer gets regard, worship that he was one time used to. Work force are considered to hold more influence within society ; Mr Bertram has no influence over this state of affairs or over his married woman.
Part 2: Using the scenario describe two psychological theories that can be used to assist your apprehension of the service users ‘ state of affairs
Humanistic theory – Maslow ‘s hierarchy of demands
Humanist psychologist Abraham Maslow ( 1908 – 1970 ) argued that worlds throughout life non merely want to hold their basic endurance demands met they strive for more in footings of personal growing. He believed that one time basic demands for endurance had been met that human development progressed toward higher psychological demands. He argued that “ people are motivated by the witting desire for personal growing ” ( Rathus, 2004 ) . Maslow believed what separated us from our alleged lower animate beings was our capacity for self-actualisation ( Rathus,2004 ) . He believed that this self- realization was every bit of import as basic demands but could non be met unless other phases of human demands were completed. He organised these phases into the hierarchy of demands, frequently presented in pyramid format. Each phase must be satisfied in order to come on to the following. At the underside of the hierarchy are physiological demands. These are the basic human needs we all have in order to last, like nutrient, H2O, shelter, O. Once the first basic demand has been satisfied, the undermentioned phase is safety demands, the demand for security. The undermentioned phase in the hierarchy is love and belonging ; the demand to give and have love, to get the better of solitariness and accomplish a sense of belonging in life. The 4th phase is ‘Esteem demands ‘ ; to experience self-assured, respected and non to experience inferior. Self-actualisation is the concluding phase in the hierarchy and can merely be reached when all foregoing demands are satisfied and the individual feels he has achieved everything he wants to in life and is the best that he can be.
In the instance of the Bertram ‘s it is clear that Mrs Bertram is presently non even run intoing the underside of Maslow ‘s hierarchy of demands. It is noted that their level is in an dismaying province, she is unable to feed herself and left on her ain for most of the twenty-four hours. You would anticipate most of her demands to be met within the context of her matrimony to Mr Bertram ; nevertheless, since he has neglected his function as a hubby, he has placed her in a place of important danger. Since non even her basic physiological demands are being met in the current state of affairs so at nowadays at that place would non be an chance to come on through the hierarchy of demands.
If Mrs Bertram was placed in residential attention so her physiological demands would be met. She would hold nutrient, H2O and attention of her basic demands. She could so possibly come on to the undermentioned phase of safety. She would no longer be at hazard of aching herself and she would be in a more unafraid environment. Although it could be argued that for an progress Alzheimer ‘s sick person, the unfamiliar scene would disorientate her and she might non really experience secure at that place. Because of her diagnosing, Mrs Bertram is improbable to run into the 3rd phase of ‘love and belongingness ‘ . Her advanced Alzheimer ‘s may intend that she fails to recognize her hubby, household members and have a worsening ability to pass on. Mrs Bertram would ne’er make self-actualisation. The best that could be achieved would be basic endurance and safety demands, whether this was achieved at place with the conformity of her hubby, or in residential attention. Although it could be debated that residential attention would non be the best option. As the GP provinces in the instance scenario, “ a move to residential attention might good kill Mrs Bertram ” .
It would look from the instance scenario that Mr Bertram ‘s basic demands are being fulfilled. However it is unsure as to whether his s safety and security demands are being met. He surely would non acquire a sense of love and belonging from his married woman, in the latter phases of sever dementedness. I would detect, nevertheless, there is some effort from Mr Bertram to accomplish a sense of self-pride, since he spends the bulk of his clip with his compatriots at the golf nine. It is clear that in this relationship and the current state of affairs faced by the Bertram ‘s that he excessively has no manner of making self-actualisation. Maslow observes that it is chiefly societal factors that hinder the personal growing of worlds. Potentially at least the first two phases of Maslow ‘s hierarchy could be reached within the context of their matrimony, with the right services in topographic point.
Through the Psychodynamic theory of personality we could theorize about Mr Bertram ‘s yesteryear and how that has influence on his behavior in the present. It would be hard to accomplish a comprehensive consequence in respects to Mrs Bertram because of her Alzheimer ‘s. Since her behavior is entirely attributed to her status.
Analyzing Sigmund Freud ‘s ( 1856 – 1939 ) theories, with a focal point on psychosexual development, would be the most relevant to use to the instance scenario. Psychodynamic theory had been developed and evolved over the old ages. Freud ‘s thought of Psychodynamic theory depicted worlds as mostly driven by unconscious motivations and desires. He proclaimed that humans come into struggle when their basic inherent aptitudes come up against societal force per unit area to follow, Torahs or moral codifications. “ At foremost this struggle is external, but as we develop it becomes internalised ” ( Rathus, 2004 ) . Freud explains the struggle of personality utilizing psychic constructions. The Idaho, which Freud believed is present at birth and located in the unconscious head, and revolves around our basic biological thrusts and inherent aptitudes. It operates on what Freud called the ‘pleasure rule ‘ . It demands instant satisfaction regardless of Torahs or moral regulations. Another characteristic in the construction of personality is the self-importance. Formed from the Idaho, developed through acquisition and experience. This is the portion where witting idea takes topographic point ( Beckett and Taylor, 2010 ) . The self-importance operates on the ‘reality rule ‘ . This takes into consideration what is practical and possible in satisfying demands ( Rathus, 2004 ) . When the self-importance senses improper urges arsing it can sometimes deploy a figure of defense mechanism mechanisms. The 3rd psychic construction is the superego. This is formed throughout early childhood and is developed through criterions, values, rearing and moral criterions. “ Psychodynamic theory emphasises the manner in which the head stimulates behavior, and both head and behavior influence and are influenced by the individual ‘s societal environment ” ( Payne, 2005 )
Freud believed there were four phases in psychosexual development. The first phase took topographic point during the first twelvemonth of a kid ‘s life. This is known as the ‘oral ‘ phase. Much of the kid ‘s development is explored by seting things into the oral cavity and suction, seize with teething masticating. Freud believed it was possible to hold arrested development through injury. And be fixated on one of the phases. From the instance survey we could surmise that Mr Bertram is fixated on the unwritten phase of psychosexual development through his ‘drinking ‘ . We could theorize that he may hold had a important injury at that phase which has left him with a possible intoxicant dependence, therefore fixated on the unwritten phase.
It could possibly be identified that Mr Bertram is utilizing psychological defense mechanism mechanisms in order to avoid the state of affairs that he is presently confronting.
Part 3: Reflect on your ain background describe it and bespeak 1 sociological and 1 psychological theory that can be applied to you, giving illustrations
The relationship I have with my male parent has frequently been fraught, hard and tense. As a sick person of a terrible mental upset, my male parent has frequently displayed irrational, delusional, paranoid and sometimes violent behavior. Throughout his life he has had frequent hospitalization. For me this is something I have grown up with and am used to covering with on a twenty-four hours to twenty-four hours footing. I am acutely cognizant of how our relationship differs to that of my friends for illustration. I have every bit near a relationship as possible with him, and to that terminal I normally bear the brunt of his paranoia and aggression when he is ailing. I have witnessed first-hand the stigma attached to mental unwellness. I find it highly hard to swear anyone adequate to state them about the state of affairs, and I strongly experience I should n’t hold to state everyone that meets him, this lone leads to labelling him as mentally sick, therefore altering the manner in which they treat him ; which merely compounds his paranoia.
Some Sociological theoreticians believe that mental unwellness is a societal building in order to rationalize bizarre or irrational behavior that can non be in any other manner explained. This is known as labelling theory. Scheff ( 1966 ) argued that people are labelled as mentally ill because their behavior does non do sense to others. “ Scheff points out that labelling of a individual as mentally sick is facilitated by stereotypic imagination learned in early childhood and continually reaffirmed, unwittingly, in ordinary societal interaction and through the mass media. Therefore, when a individual ‘s misdemeanor of societal norms or aberrance becomes a public issue, the traditional stereotype of “ brainsick individual ” is readily adopted both by those responding to the aberrant individual and, frequently, by the aberrant individual as well ” ( Lamb. 2002 ) . Erving Goffman suggests that when person is labelled as mentally sick so they are treated otherwise. When an interaction takes topographic point with that individual it is with this cognition of the mental unwellness, hence making what Goffman called a specious interaction ( Haralambos and Holborn, 2004 ) .
From a behaviorist position, Schizophrenia could be viewed as a sort of erudite behavior. “ From this position, people engage in schizophrenic behavior when it is more likely to be reinforced than normal behavior ( Rathus, 2004 ) . This could be the consequence of being raised in an unrewarding or punitory state of affairs. It could besides be observed that this sort of behavior is reinforced within the infirmary scene, where the schizophrenic behavior is reinforced through attending from professionals within that puting. Cognitive theory argues that behaviour is affected by perceptual experience or reading of the environment during the procedure of acquisition. “ Apparently inappropriate behaviour must therefore arise from misunderstanding. Therapy tries to rectify the misinterpretation, so that our behavior reacts suitably to the environment ” ( Payne, 2006 )
I believe the experiences I have had with my male parent give me the ability to understand mental unwellness without stigmatizing. It besides helps me sympathize with the sick person and the household. An empathic attack to person who was hearing voices for illustration, would be to understand that to the individual affect, they are really existent. I to the full understand the importance of holding the right services in topographic point in order for that individual to boom. My experience allows me to detect the wider context of a state of affairs and realise that it is non merely the primary sick person of the status that is affected. The wider household needs to be considered as they have a immense function to play in the wellbeing of the individual concerned.