Buying merchandises and utilizing services is portion of our day-to-day life. We buy books, food markets, and computing machines and we use telephones, ticker films, and wing on planes. When making so, we demand high quality and good service at a low monetary value. How these demands can be fulfilled is covered in Supply Chain Management ( SCM ) . SCM is about planing, bring forthing, presenting and merchandising merchandises and services and about making so productively. It has emerged as one of the most powerful concern topics and successful companies all over the universe are utilizing SCM to better quality, increase client service, cut down cost and construct new grosss.
Besides, SCM integrates the provider, distributer, and client logistics demands into one cohesive procedure. The SCM is a aggregation of physical entities such as fabrication workss, distribution centres, conveyances, retail mercantile establishments, people, and information, which are linked through ingestion. The SCM has been recognized as an of import concern component due to the fact that decreased clip, every bit good as cost to the client, will greatly lend to their fight within their perspective industry.
Furthermore, SCM reduces merchandise costs through the riddance of unneeded stairss and adds value to the client service map by more closely pull offing the coordination among logistics suppliers and clients. It is chiefly concerned with pull offing the company ‘s integrating with transit and information suppliers as it defines and drives the demands for both.
The ultimate intent of the SCM is to increase client value while keeping competitory monetary values. It is largely concentrated on stuff and merchandise sourcing, seller rating, and buying.
Wal-Mart is an illustration of SCM at its finest. By maintaining monetary values low and their shelves good stocked, Wal-Mart has become the taking retail concern in the United States. One of many grounds Wal-Mart is able to offer such low monetary values and maintain a changeless degree of stock list is through a legendary stock list refilling system triggered by point-of-sale purchases that is the best in the industry.
figure illustrates Wal-Marts supply concatenation:
The “ uninterrupted refilling system ” sends orders for new ware straight to providers every bit shortly as consumers pay for their purchases at the hard currency registry. Point-of-sale terminuss record the saloon codification of each point go throughing the check-out procedure counter and direct a purchase dealing straight to a cardinal computing machine at Wal-Mart central office. This computing machine collects the orders from all Wal-Mart shops and topographic points orders with their providers to refill the sold merchandises. Suppliers can besides entree Wal-Mart ‘s gross revenues and stock list informations utilizing Web engineering.
Because the system can refill stock list with lightning velocity, Wal-Mart does non necessitate to pass much money on keeping big stock lists of goods in its ain warehouse. The system besides allows Wal-Mart to set purchases of shop points to run into client demands.
The uninterrupted updating of informations shared between providers and clients such that refilling, as managed by the provider, may happen daily or even less. A successful uninterrupted refilling system requires accurate merchandise demand prediction and an information system that includes up-to-date warehouse backdown informations, transportation informations, and point-of-sale informations, so that the stock list and distribution procedure can be managed with pinpoint control.
Supply concatenation direction at the Wal-Mart can be described in three subdivisions. They are Procurement and Distribution, Logistics Management, Inventory Management.
PROCUREMENT AND DISTRIBUTION.
In fact, the Wal-Mart ‘s procedure of procurance involves cut downing its buying costs every bit far as possible so that it can offer best monetary value to its clients. The company procured the goods straight from industries, short-circuiting all mediators. The Wal- Mart was the tough mediator on the monetary values and has finished purchase concern merely when it has been wholly assured, that the bought merchandises were non accessible in other topographic points under lower monetary value.
Harmonizing to Claude Harris, one of the earliest employees, “ Every purchaser has to be tough ” . That is the occupation. I ever told purchasers: “ Do n’t of all time experience sorry for a seller ” . He ever knows what he can sell, and we want his bottom monetary value. “ We would state the sellers, ” Do n’t go forth in any room for a kickback because we do n’t make it here. And we do n’t desire your advertisement plan or bringing plan. Our truck will pick it up at your warehouse. Now what is your best monetary value?
Initially, the Wal-Mart has spent the indispensable measure of clip meeting Sellerss and understanding their construction of cost. Making crystalline procedure, the retail merchant could be convinced, that fabricating made all attempts to cut down disbursals. After satisfied, Wal-Mart trusted in an constitution of long- term dealingss with the marketer. In its effort to drive difficult deal, Wal-Mart even spare large makers as Procter and Gamble ( P & A ; G ) . However, the company in general has preferred local and regional Sellerss and providers.
True, in 1998, Wal-Mart was more than 40 distribution centres located in assorted geographic locations in the United States. More than 80 000 points have been supplied in these centres. The Wal- Mart ain warehouses straight delivered 85 per centum of stock, in comparing with 50-65 per centum for rivals. Harmonizing to unsmooth estimations, the Wal- Mart was able provide refillings within two yearss ( on the norm ) against at least five yearss for rivals. Cargo of disbursals for Wal-Mart, solved to be about 3 per centum in comparing with 5 per centum for rivals.
Obviously, each distribution centre has been divided into assorted subdivisions on the footing of measure of the received goods and was managed the same manner for both instances and the packaged goods. The stock list turnover rate was really high, approximately one time each two hebdomads for the bulk of points. The goods intended for distribution within the USA normally, arrived to palettes while the imported goods have arrived to boxes of repeated usage or instances. In some instances, providers delivered goods such as automotive and drug merchandises straight to the stores. Approximately 85 % of the goods which were accessible in stores passed through the distribution centres.
So that, the distribution centres ensured a steady and consistent flow of merchandises to back up the supply map. As Wal-Mart used hard engineering of a barcode and portable computing machine systems, runing the centre became easier and more economical. Every employee had an entree to real-time information sing the stock list degrees of all the merchandises in the centre. They should do two scans- one to place the palette, and another to place the location from where the stock had to be picked up.
Different barcodes were used to label different merchandises, shelves and bins in a centre. The handheld computing machine guided an employee with respect to the location of a specific merchandise from a peculiar bin or shelf in the centre. When the computing machine has checked up the bin and picked up a merchandise, functioning has confirmed whether there was the right merchandise or non. The measure of the merchandise demanded from the centre, has been entered into the portable computing machine by the employee and so the computing machine has updated the information refering on the chief waiter.
The portable computing machine besides has allowed packing section to have the exact information on merchandises which will be packed. It has shown all information on storage, packing and transportation of a specific merchandise therefore, salvaging clip on unneeded paperss. It besides has allowed perceivers of the Centre to oversee the employees near leting them to teach and even steer them even on the move. It has allowed the company to fulfill demands of the client rapidly and to better degree of efficiency of the distribution Centre direction operations.
As we have seen, each distribution centre had installations for keeping personal hygiene, such as a shower bath and fittingness centres. It besides had proviso for nutrient, slumber and personal concern. The distribution centre could besides be used for meetings and paperss. The truck drivers of Wal-Mart sometimes availed these installations.
The benefits of enterprise-wide logistics direction have been widely promoted with often-cited illustrations such as Wal-Mart and Benetton. Logisticss can so be a true nucleus competency, strategically positioning the organisation for market success and a beginning of long-term competitory advantage ( Gunn, 1993 ) .
Many people wonder how Wal-Mart is able to bear down such low monetary values and continue to do a net income. There are several factors in their concern theoretical account that contribute to this ability, but a large one is their ability to accommodate to an ever-changing planetary market place.
Some criticize Wal-Mart ‘s attempts to present to their clients a quality merchandise at low monetary values, but in world, Wal-Mart has been able to present low monetary values by being efficient. This efficiency is present in several countries but one of the most of import topographic points is how they are able to fabricate merchandises all over the universe and acquire them to retail mercantile establishments, which are besides wholly over the universe. This ability requires a unflawed logistical system that allows merchandise to be shipped anyplace at a minutes notice.
One of the keys to Wal-Mart ‘s effectual logistical system is the flexibleness that it has when taking providers. When Wal-Mart negotiates with providers and the providers know that Wal-Mart will merely pay the most competitory monetary values. This is because it is really easy for them to happen another provider of that peculiar stuff with a lower monetary value and really few logistical jobs. This gives Wal-Mart a immense sum of purchase when covering with providers. If a peculiar provider knows that a company has found a lower monetary value, it will take down its monetary value consequently.
However, new attacks to direction of logistics is better are based on strong and flexible foundation. No redesign should be launched without appropriate old attending both to organisational and to proficient contexts.
Obviously, the fast and sympathetic system of transit was the of import characteristic of an substructure of logistics Wal-Mart. Centers of distribution were served more than 3.500 lorries being in the company belongings. These specialised fleets of the lorry have allowed the company to direct the goods from distribution centres to stores within two yearss and to make full up regiments of store two times a hebdomad. The truck fleet was the seeable nexus between the shops and distribution centres. Wal-Mart believed that it needed drivers who were committed and dedicated to client service. The company employed merely skilled drivers who conducted more than 300 000 accident-free stat mis, without major traffic misdemeanor.
There are some grounds why the Wal-Mart truck drivers by and large moved the merchandise-loaded dawdlers from Wal-Mart distribution centres to the retail shops serviced by each distribution centre. These retail shops were considered as clients by the distribution centres. The drivers should inform their hours of service to a coordinator daily. The coordinator scheduled all despatchs depending on the available drive clip and the estimated clip for travel between the distribution centres and the retail shops.
As an illustration, the coordinator informed the driver of his despatchs, either on the driver ‘s reaching at the distribution centre or on his return to the distribution centre from the retail shop. The driver as normally expected to take a laden truck dawdler from the distribution centre to the retail shop and return back with an empty dawdler. He had to despatch a laden truck dawdler at the retail shop and pass the dark at that place. A driver had to convey the dawdler at the dock of a shop merely at its scheduled unloading clip, no affair when he arrived at the shop.
During, the drivers delivered the dawdlers in the afternoon and eventide hours and they would be unloaded at the shop at darks. There was an interval of two hours between droping of each dawdler. For illustration, if a shop has received three dawdlers, the first 1 would be unloaded at midnight ( 12 am ) , the 2nd one would be unloaded at 2 am and the 3rd one at 4 am.
Although, the dawdlers were left unattended, they were secured by the drivers, until the shop forces took charge of them at dark. Wal-Mart received more dawdlers than they had docks, due to their big volume of concern.
Obviously, the Wal-Mart has supported rigorous lasting ticker on its drivers by maintaining a record of their activities through the “ Private Fleet Driver Handbook ” ( Refer Exhibit I ) . The intent of the book was to educate the drivers with respect to the codification of behavior. It besides included the footings and conditions sing the safe exchange of dawdlers with the shop forces and the safety of Wal-Mart ‘s belongings. This book besides contained a list of other activities, the non-compliance of which would ensue in the expiration of the driver.
Exhibit I. Private Fleet Driver Handbook
Wal-Mart ‘s Private Fleet Driver Handbook contained footings and conditions with respect to expiration of the truck drivers. Harmonizing to the Wal-Mart ‘s Private Fleet Driver Handbook, a driver could be terminated from his occupation if he refused to present an assignment given to him. However, if the driver has refused to present the assignment due to tire or insufficient remainder, the refusal was non considered as a misdemeanor. This book included other regulations, the misdemeanor of which would ensue in immediate expiration of the driver. This book was maintained by Wal-Mart to make consciousness about the function, responsibilities and duties of a driver towards the company, society and profession in assorted state of affairss.
The expected actions of each driver and the “ codification of behaviour ” have been clearly detailed in this enchiridion and the driver should adhere to these regulations and instructions purely. However, drivers have non been terminated merely because they violated the regulations and footings mentioned in the enchiridion. The facts, fortunes, state of affairss and other collaborative grounds were taken into history and exhaustively assessed to make up one’s mind about the expiration. When a driver has broken the regulation or “ codification of behaviour ” , he was non terminated instantly, but was foremost taught the right codification of behaviour by Wal-Mart.
For illustration, though the enchiridion mentioned that drivers should be really polite and sort while covering with the shop forces and others, the driver has non been dismissed to be unsmooth. Alternatively, he was given a warning and has asked to act decently. He has been dismissed merely when he showed no betterment. The drivers were besides required to procure the truck dawdlers at the clip of presenting them to the shops. The inability or failure to make so was non considered as a breach of contract that would ensue in immediate expiration. However, a driver was one time terminated from his occupation ( in the twelvemonth 2000 ) by Wal-Mart ‘s so Private Fleet Manager, Mr. Paul Darwin, ( who took charge in 1998 ) for go forthing a dawdler unbarred at one of the shops near a main road.
Besides, harmonizing to the regulations mentioned in a enchiridion, drivers should interchange the truck dawdlers in a wholly “ safe and responsible ” to a mode, so that dawdlers have non been damaged during an exchange or in a manner, and therefore it does non ensue in any loss to other people in the signifier of hurt, etc. When the driver leaves the unloaded dawdler in forepart of the Wal-Mart shop for the shop forces to pick it up, he should guarantee, that the dawdler is decently safeguarded and secured against a closed dock in the shop. It would vouch that no other individual will acquire entree to the unloaded dawdlers.
For Wal-Mart, an evitable accident was a more terrible discourtesy than declining to present an assignment for despatch. Mr. Paul Darwin, the so Private Fleet Manager of Wal-Mart, one time dismissed a driver for being involved in an accident that could hold been avoided or prevented. However, the driver ‘s dismissal was subsequently withdrawn.
Furthermore, to do its distribution procedure more efficient, Wal-Mart besides made usage of a logistics technique known as “ cross-docking. ” In this system, the finished goods were straight picked up from the fabrication works of a provider, sorted out and so straight supplied to the clients. The system reduced the handling and storage of finished goods, virtually extinguishing the function of the distribution centres and shops. There were five types of cross-docking ( Refer Exhibit II ) .
Exhibit II Types of Cross Docking
Opportunist Cross docking- In this method of cross moorage, the exact information about where the necessary good should be shipped and from where it should be procured and exact measure which will be sent was necessary. This method of cross moorage has allowed the company to transport straight the goods, necessary retail clients, non hive awaying them in warehouse bins or shelves. Opportunist cross moorage could besides be used when the warehouse package of direction installed by the retail merchant, has set ready it, that the specific merchandise was ready to traveling and could be moved instantly.
Flow-through Cross docking- In this type of cross moorage, there was a changeless influx and escape of the goods from the distribution centre. This type of cross moorage was largely suited for the perishable goods which had really short interval of clip, or the goods which were hard to be kept in warehouses. This cross docking system was chiefly accompanied by supermarkets and other retail price reduction shops, particularly for perishable points.
Distributor Cross docking- In this type of cross moorage, the maker has delivered the goods to straight to retailer. No mediators have been involved in this procedure. It has allowed the retail merchant to salvage a major part of the disbursals in the signifier of storage. As the retail merchant should non back up the distribution centre for storage assorted sorts of the goods, he has helped it to salvage warehouse costs. The lead clip for the bringing of goods from the maker to the consumer was besides drastically reduced. However, this method had some disadvantages excessively. Expenses of transit both for the maker and for the retail merchant tended to increase during clip when the goods have been required to be transported to different locations several times. Besides, the transit system should be really fast. Otherwise, the intent of cross moorage has been lost. The transit system should be besides extremely antiphonal and to take the duty for holds in bringing of the goods. The retail merchant was at a greater hazard. He has lost that advantage to sharing hazards with the maker. This type of cross moorage was suited merely for those retail merchants who had the large distributive web and could be used in state of affairss when goods had to be delivered in a short span of clip.
Manufacturing Cross docking- In Manufacturing cross moorage, these cross docking installations served the mills and acted as impermanent and “ mini warehouses. ” Whenever a fabrication company required some parts or stuffs for fabricating a peculiar merchandise, it was delivered by the provider in little tonss within a really short span of clip, merely when it was needed. This helped cut down the transit and warehouse costs well.
Pre-Allocated Cross Docking- Pre-allocated cross moorage is really much like the usual cross-docking, except that in this type of cross moorage, the goods are already packed and labeled by the maker and it is ready for cargo to the distribution centre from where it is sent to the shop. The goods can be delivered by the distribution centre straight to the shop without opening the battalion of the maker and re-packing the goods. The shop can so present the goods straight to the consumer without any farther repacking. Goods received by the distribution centre or the shop are straight sent into the outbound transporting truck, to be delivered to the consumer, without changing the bundle of the good. Cross docking requires really close co-ordination and co-operation of the makers, warehouse forces and the shops forces. Goods can be easy and rapidly delivered merely when accurate information is available readily. The information can be managed with the aid of Electronic Data Interchange ( EDI ) and other general gross revenues information.
In cross moorage, requisitions received for different goods from a shop were converted into purchase or procurement orders. These purchase orders were so forwarded to the makers who conveyed their ability or inability to provide the goods within a peculiar period of clip. In instances where the maker agreed to provide the needed goods within the specified clip, the goods were straight forwarded to a topographic point called the presenting country.
Absolutely, the goods have been packed here harmonizing to the orders received from different stores, and so hold straight sent to matching clients. To derive maximal out of cross-docking, Wal-Mart should do cardinal alterations in its attack to the managerial control. Traditionally, determinations about selling, pricing and publicities had been extremely centralized and were by and large taken at the corporate degree. The cross moorage system, nevertheless, changed this pattern.
The system shifted the focal point from “ supply concatenation ” to the “ demand concatenation, ” which meant that alternatively of the retail merchant ‘pushing ‘ merchandises into the system ; clients could “ draw ” merchandises, when and where they needed. This attack placed a premium on frequent, informal cooperation among shops, distribution centres and providers with far less centralised control than earlier.
Besides, if the provider knows besides, that for the company it will be improbably hard to do proper accommodations to vouch smooth passage to the different provider, so they will be less inclined to take down their monetary value as much. It is non, how bing providers deal with Wal-Mart ; when they see that Wal-Mart has found the provider who will give them lower monetary value, current providers lower their monetary values consequently. They know that logistical system of the Wal-Mart can turn to with passage easy, and accordingly they do non have extra purchase, as it will non be hard or expensive for Wal-Mart to take other provider.
Another ground that Wal-Mart ‘s monetary values are so competitory is because they buy in such big measures that transit from one terminal of the supply concatenation to another is non as expensive for extra units. This facet of the logistical system does non come from accomplishment or expertise it merely comes from the sheer size of the company, but this is still a factor.
On the other manus, the Wal-Mart bargains so many supplies from different topographic points throughout the universe, that they have the luxury of utilizing bigger trucks and utilizing less fuel to travel back and Forth. Besides if by opportunity they have to utilize transportation services to transport stuff from one location to another, Wal-Mart will give them so much concern that they will acquire immense price reductions.
On the whole, the logistical system that Wal-Mart utilizations is so effectual because it is so flexible. This is why Wal-Mart is able to offer things much cheaper than other companies can. Wal-Mart has a repute for being able to offer these things in a inexpensive mode because of low employee wage and human rights misdemeanors but this is merely non the instance.
Wal-Mart had developed an ability to provide to the single demands of its shops. Shops could take from a figure of bringing programs. For case, there was an accelerated bringing system by which shops located within a certain distance of a geographical centre could have refilling within a twenty-four hours.
Indeed, the Wal-Mart invested to a great extent in Information Technology ( IT ) and communications systems to efficaciously track gross revenues and ware stock lists in shops across the state. With the rapid enlargement of Wal-Mart shops in the US, it was indispensable to hold a good communicating system.
Hence, Wal-Mart set up its ain orbiter communicating system in 1983. Explaining the benefits of the system Walton said, “ I can walk in the orbiter room, where our technicians sit in forepart of the computing machine screens speaking on the phone to any shops that might be holding a job with the system, and merely looking over their shoulders for a minute or two will state me a batch about how a peculiar twenty-four hours is traveling. On the screen, I can see the sum of the twenty-four hours ‘s bank recognition gross revenues adding up as they occur. If we have something truly of import or pressing to pass on to the shops and distribution centres, I, or any other Wal-Mart executive can walk back to our Television studio and acquire on that orbiter transmittal and acquire it right out at that place. I can besides travel every Saturday forenoon around three, look over these printouts and cognize exactly what sort of work we have had. ”
Wal-Mart was able to cut down unproductive stock list by leting shops to pull off their ain stocks, cut downing battalion sizes across many merchandise classs, and timely monetary value markdowns. Alternatively of cutting stock list across the board, Wal-Mart made full usage of its IT capabilities to do more stock lists available in the instance of points that clients wanted most, while cut downing the overall stock list degrees.
In add-on, the Wal-Mart besides networked its providers through computing machines. The company entered into coaction with P & A ; G for keeping the stock list in its shops and built an automated reordering system, which linked all computing machines between P & A ; G and its shops and other distribution centres. The computing machine system at Wal-Mart shops identified an point which was low in stock and sent a signal to P & A ; G. The system so sent a re-supply order to the nearest P & A ; G mill through a orbiter communicating system. P & A ; G so delivered the point either to the Wal-Mart distribution centre or straight to the concerned shops. This coaction between Wal-Mart and P & A ; G was a win-win proposition for both because Wal-Mart could supervise its stock degrees in the shops invariably and besides place the points that were traveling fast. P & A ; G could besides take down its costs and base on balls on some of the nest eggs to Wal-Mart due to better coordination.
Employees at the shops had the “ Magic Wand, ” a handheld computing machine which was linked to in-store terminuss through a wireless frequence web. These helped them to maintain path of the stock list in shops, bringings and backup ware in stock at the distribution centres. The order direction and shop refilling of goods were wholly executed with the aid of computing machines through the Point-of-Sales ( POS ) system. Through this system, it was possible to supervise and track the gross revenues and ware stock degrees on the shop shelves.
Furthermore, the Wal-Mart besides made usage of the sophisticated algorithm system which enabled it to calculate the exact measures of each point to be delivered, based on the stock lists in each shop. Since the information was accurate, even bulk points could be broken and supplied to the shops. Wal-Mart besides used a centralised stock list informations system utilizing which the forces at the shops could happen out the degree of stock lists and the location of each merchandise at any given clip. It besides showed whether a merchandise was being loaded in the distribution centre or was in theodolite on a truck. Once the goods were unloaded at the shop, the shop was furnished with full stocks of stock lists of a peculiar point and the stock list informations system was instantly updated.
Although, the Wal-Mart besides made usage of saloon cryptography and wireless frequence engineering to pull off its stock lists. Using saloon codifications and fixed optical readers, the goods could be directed to the appropriate dock, from where they were loaded on to the trucks for cargo. Bar coding devices enabled efficient picking, having and proper stock list control of the appropriate goods. It besides enabled easy order wadding and physical numeration of the stock lists.
In 1991, Wal-Mart had invested about $ 4 billion to construct a retail nexus system. More than 10,000 Wal-Mart retail providers used the retail nexus system to supervise the gross revenues of their goods at shops and replenish stock lists. The inside informations of day-to-day minutess, which about amounted to more than 10 million per twenty-four hours, were processed through this incorporate system and were furnished to every Wal-Mart shop by 4 ante meridiem, the following twenty-four hours. In October 2001, Wal-Mart tied-up with Atlas Commerce for upgrading the system through the Internet enabled engineerings.
As grounds of the Wal-Mart owned the largest and most sophisticated computing machine system in the private sector. And the company used Massively Parallel Processor ( MPP ) computing machine system to track the motion of goods and stock degrees. All information related to gross revenues and stock lists was passed on through an advanced orbiter communicating system. To supply back-up in instance of a major dislocation or service break, the company had an extended eventuality program.
By doing effectual usage of computing machines in all its company ‘s operations, Wal-Mart was successful in supplying uninterrupted service to its clients, providers, shareholders and trading spouses.
Benefits FROM WAL-MART ‘S SCM.
Whereas, the Wal-Mart strongly believed and invariably emphasized on strengthening of its relationships with its clients, providers and employees. The company was really argus-eyed and sensed the smallest of alterations in shop layouts and trading techniques to better public presentation and value for clients. The company made attempts to capitalise on every cost salvaging chance. The nest eggs on cost were ever passed on to the consumers, thereby adding value at every phase and procedure.
Furthermore, the Wal-Mart besides enjoyed the benefits of low transit costs since it had its ain transit system which assisted Wal-Mart in presenting the goods to different shops within ( or sometimes less than ) 48 hours. Transportation system costs for Wal-Mart were estimated at about 3 % of the entire costs as compared to 5 % for their rivals. Having its ain transit system enabled Wal-Mart to refill the shelves four times faster than its rivals.
Wal-Mart priced its goods economically and the monetary values varied from twenty-four hours to twenty-four hours. The company enjoyed good bargaining power as it purchased immense measures. This enabled it to monetary value its merchandises competitively and go through on the benefits to the consumers. The company offered higher price reductions than any other retail merchant and they earned good grosss in the signifier of higher volumes. Low pricing ensured that the gross revenues volumes were high and consistent.
As we have seen, the benefits of an efficient supply concatenation direction system included decrease in lead clip, faster stock list turnover, accurate prediction of stock list degrees, increased warehouse infinite, decrease in safety stock and better working capital use. It besides helped cut down the dependence on the distribution centre direction forces ensuing in minimisation of preparation costs and mistakes. The stock-out of goods and the subsequent loss originating out of it was wholly eliminated.
In other words, the Wal-Mart ‘s supply concatenation direction patterns resulted in increased efficiency in operations and better client service. It eliminated old stocks and maintained quality of goods. Bar cryptography and wireless frequence engineerings enabled accurate distribution of goods. Cross-docking besides helped Wal-Mart to cut down stock list storage costs. It besides helped to cut down the labour and other handling costs involved in the burden and unloading of goods.